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Matthew Henry

Matthew Henry's Complete Commentary - Exodus 12:29-36

Here we have, I. The Egyptians? sons, even their first-born, slain, Exod. 12:29, 30. If Pharaoh would have taken the warning which was given him of this plague, and would thereupon have released Israel, what a great many dear and valuable lives might have been preserved! But see what obstinate infidelity brings upon men. Observe, 1. The time when this blow was given: It was at midnight, which added to the terror of it. The three preceding nights were made dreadful by the additional plague of... read more

John Gill

John Gills Exposition of the Bible Commentary - Exodus 12:31

And he called for Moses and Aaron by night ,.... Not that Pharaoh went in person, but he sent his servants to call them; for they never saw his face more after he had drove them from his presence; but now was fulfilled what Moses told him, that his servants should come to him in a very suppliant manner, and entreat him and his people to get away in all haste, Exodus 10:28 . Where Moses and Aaron now were is not certain, probably in the city, or suburbs of it, where Pharaoh's palace was,... read more

Adam Clarke

Adam Clarke's Commentary on the Bible - Exodus 12:31

Called for Moses and Aaron - That is, he sent the message here mentioned to them; for it does not appear that he had any farther interview with Moses and Aaron, after what is mentioned Exodus 10:28 , Exodus 10:29 , and Exodus 11:8 . See Clarke's notes Exodus 10:28 , Exodus 10:29 ; (note), and Exodus 11:8 ; (note). read more

John Calvin

John Calvin's Commentary on the Bible - Exodus 12:31

Verse 31 31.And he called for Moses. It is not probable that God’s servants were recalled into the presence of Pharaoh; but the sense of this passage must be sought for in the prediction of Moses. Pharaoh, therefore, is said to have called them, when, by sending to them his chief courtiers, he compelled their departure. And this is sufficiently proved by the context, because it is immediately added, that the Israelites were by the Egyptians compelled to go out: in haste. Therefore, although... read more

Spence, H. D. M., etc.

The Pulpit Commentary - Exodus 12:29-31

The death of the first-born, On this see Exodus 11:4-7 . Observe here— I. THIS JUDGMENT IS BASED ON THE PRINCIPLE OF REPRESENTATION . Hitherto, the plagues had fallen on the Egyptians indiscriminately. Now, a change is made to the principle of representation. Egypt, Israel also, is represented in its first-born. When a death-penalty was to be inflicted, the lines had to be drawn more sharp and clear. We are reminded that this principle of representation holds a... read more

Spence, H. D. M., etc.

The Pulpit Commentary - Exodus 12:29-42

Egypt's sorrow: Israel's joy. I. THE JUDGMENT OF EGYPT EMBLEM AND PROMISE OF THE WORLD 'S JUDGMENT . 1 . The time of visitation; midnight, when all were wrapt in deepest slumber and, notwithstanding the warning which had been given, busy only with dreams. The world will be surprised in the midst of its false security. "As it was in the days of Noel etc. 2 . Its universality. There were none so high that God's hand did not reach them, and none so low that... read more

Spence, H. D. M., etc.

The Pulpit Commentary - Exodus 12:29-42

March at midnight. "This is that night of Jehovah" ( Exodus 12:42 ). Observe the striking words of the text! "The night of Jehovah," a night in which he specially appeared and acted on behalf of Israel. For a description of the scenery of this eventful night see Dr. W . M . Taylor's "Moses," 99-101. In the treatment of this subject considerable exposition will be necessary. For material, see expository section of this commentary. It may, in order to include all important points, be... read more

Spence, H. D. M., etc.

The Pulpit Commentary - Exodus 12:31

And he called for Moses and Aaron . Kalisch understands this as a summons to the King's presence, and even supposes that the two brothers complied, notwithstanding what Moses had said ( Exodus 10:29 ). But perhaps no more is meant than at Pharaoh's instance Moses and Aaron were summoned to an interview with some of the Court officials (see Exodus 11:8 ). As ye have said. Literally, "according to your words." The reference is to such passages as Exodus 8:1 , Exodus 8:20 ; Exodus 9:1 ... read more

Spence, H. D. M., etc.

The Pulpit Commentary - Exodus 12:31-36

Israel's going forth from Egypt a pattern to oppressed Churches. Churches are sometimes enslaved and oppressed by the civil power. In unsuspecting confidence they have accepted the State's protection, and entered into certain relations with it, supposed to be mutually advantageous. But, as time has gone on, the terms of the original arrangement have been disregarded; the civil power has made encroachments; has narrowed the Church's liberties, has behaved oppressively towards it, has... read more

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