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Matthew Henry

Matthew Henry's Complete Commentary - Exodus 12:29-36

Here we have, I. The Egyptians? sons, even their first-born, slain, Exod. 12:29, 30. If Pharaoh would have taken the warning which was given him of this plague, and would thereupon have released Israel, what a great many dear and valuable lives might have been preserved! But see what obstinate infidelity brings upon men. Observe, 1. The time when this blow was given: It was at midnight, which added to the terror of it. The three preceding nights were made dreadful by the additional plague of... read more

John Gill

John Gills Exposition of the Bible Commentary - Exodus 12:31

And he called for Moses and Aaron by night ,.... Not that Pharaoh went in person, but he sent his servants to call them; for they never saw his face more after he had drove them from his presence; but now was fulfilled what Moses told him, that his servants should come to him in a very suppliant manner, and entreat him and his people to get away in all haste, Exodus 10:28 . Where Moses and Aaron now were is not certain, probably in the city, or suburbs of it, where Pharaoh's palace was,... read more

John Gill

John Gills Exposition of the Bible Commentary - Exodus 12:32

Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said ,.... Which they had insisted upon should go with them, but he had refused, but now he is willing they should go with them: and be gone ; out of his city and country in all haste: and bless me also ; or pray for me, as the Targum of Onkelos; pray the Lord to bestow a blessing upon me also, as I have done well by you in suffering you to depart with your whole families, flocks, and herds. The Targum of Jonathan is,"I desire nothing... read more

John Gill

John Gills Exposition of the Bible Commentary - Exodus 12:33

And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people ,.... The people of Israel; not using force, but strong entreaties, the most powerful arguments, and importunate language they were masters of: that they might send them out of the land in haste : this looks as if it was the people about Pharaoh, his ministers and courtiers, they were pressing upon to dismiss the Israelites at once, and to hasten their departure; or else Moses and Aaron, and the elders of the people, to stir them up to a... read more

John Gill

John Gills Exposition of the Bible Commentary - Exodus 12:34

And the people took their dough before it was leavened ,.... They had that evening mixed their flour with water, and made it into dough, but had put no leaven into it; and the Egyptians being so very earnest to have them gone, they stayed not to put any leaven into it: but their kneadingtroughs , or rather "their dough": being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders ; for it is not likely that their troughs should be wrapped up in the skirts of their garments; but their... read more

Adam Clarke

Adam Clarke's Commentary on the Bible - Exodus 12:31

Called for Moses and Aaron - That is, he sent the message here mentioned to them; for it does not appear that he had any farther interview with Moses and Aaron, after what is mentioned Exodus 10:28 , Exodus 10:29 , and Exodus 11:8 . See Clarke's notes Exodus 10:28 , Exodus 10:29 ; (note), and Exodus 11:8 ; (note). read more

Adam Clarke

Adam Clarke's Commentary on the Bible - Exodus 12:33

The Egyptians were urgent upon the people - They felt much, they feared more; and therefore wished to get immediately rid of a people on whose account they found they were smitten with so many and such dreadful plagues. read more

Adam Clarke

Adam Clarke's Commentary on the Bible - Exodus 12:34

The people took their dough before it was leavened, etc. - There was no time now to make any regular preparation for their departure, such was the universal hurry and confusion. The Israelites could carry but little of their household utensils with them; but some, such as they kneaded their bread and kept their meal in, they were obliged to carry with them. The kneading troughs of the Arabs are comparatively small wooden bowls, which, after kneading their bread in, serve them as dishes out... read more

John Calvin

John Calvin's Commentary on the Bible - Exodus 12:31

Verse 31 31.And he called for Moses. It is not probable that God’s servants were recalled into the presence of Pharaoh; but the sense of this passage must be sought for in the prediction of Moses. Pharaoh, therefore, is said to have called them, when, by sending to them his chief courtiers, he compelled their departure. And this is sufficiently proved by the context, because it is immediately added, that the Israelites were by the Egyptians compelled to go out: in haste. Therefore, although... read more

Spence, H. D. M., etc.

The Pulpit Commentary - Exodus 12:29-31

The death of the first-born, On this see Exodus 11:4-7 . Observe here— I. THIS JUDGMENT IS BASED ON THE PRINCIPLE OF REPRESENTATION . Hitherto, the plagues had fallen on the Egyptians indiscriminately. Now, a change is made to the principle of representation. Egypt, Israel also, is represented in its first-born. When a death-penalty was to be inflicted, the lines had to be drawn more sharp and clear. We are reminded that this principle of representation holds a... read more

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