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Thomas Constable

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable - Genesis 21:8-21

The expulsion of Ishmael and God’s care of him and Hagar 21:8-21All was not well in Abraham’s household even though God had provided the heir. Ishmael was a potential rival to Isaac’s inheritance. This section records another crisis in the story of Abraham’s heir. Waltke pointed out six parallels between Hagar and Ishmael’s trek and Abraham and Isaac’s (ch. 22). [Note: Waltke, Genesis, p. 292.] Normally in ancient Near Eastern culture the son of a concubine became the heir of his mother but not... read more

John Dummelow

John Dummelow's Commentary on the Bible - Genesis 21:1-34

Birth of Isaac. Dismissal of Hagar and Ishmael. Covenant between Abraham and Abimelech8. Weaned] in his second or third year, as is usual among Orientals.9. Ishmael had no doubt been regarded as Abraham’s heir until the birth of Isaac. The change in his prospects may account for his conduct, which St. Paul uses to illustrate the persecution of the Christians by the Jews (Galatians 4:29). Proud of their natural descent as children of Abraham, the Jews scorned the idea that God could regard... read more

Charles John Ellicott

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers - Genesis 21:16

(16) Let me not see the death of the child.—The whole story is most touching. Day after day the mother, with her child, had wandered in the wilderness, using the water in the skin sparingly, ever hoping to come to some spring, but with too little knowledge of the locality to guide her steps wisely. At last the water is spent, and the young life withers first, and the mother knows that soon they both must die. They had made their last effort, and with that hopelessness which travellers have so... read more

William Nicoll

Expositor's Dictionary of Texts - Genesis 21:1-34

Sarah the Steadfast Genesis 21:0 What is that quality in the mind of Sarah which lies below all other qualities, and which subsists when others change? It may be expressed in one word steadfastness. The abiding secret of this woman's greatness is her own abidingness. I. Sarah in the romantic stage. When the scene first opens in the married life of Abraham and Sarah, they are having an experience which their romance had not bargained for the poverty of the land. For a married pair I can imagine... read more

William Nicoll

Expositor's Bible Commentary - Genesis 21:1-34

ISHMAEL AND ISAACGenesis 21:1-34; Genesis 22:1-24Abraham had two sons, the one by a bondmaid, the other by a freewoman. Which things are an allegory.- Galatians 4:22."Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son." Genesis 22:10IN the birth of Isaac, Abraham at length sees the long-delayed fulfilment of the promise. But his trials are by no means over. He has himself introduced into his family the seeds of discord and disturbance, and speedily the fruit is borne. Ishmael,... read more

Arno Clemens Gaebelein

Arno Gaebelein's Annotated Bible - Genesis 21:1-34

CHAPTER 21 Isaac and Ishmael and the Covenant with Abimelech 1. Isaac’s birth (Genesis 22:1-3 ) 2. His circumcision (Genesis 22:4-8 ) 3. Ishmael mocking (Genesis 22:9 ) 4. Sarah’s demand (Genesis 22:10-11 ) 5. God speaks to Abraham (Genesis 22:12-13 ) 6. Hagar and Ishmael cast out (Genesis 22:14-16 ) 7. The intervention of God (Genesis 22:17-21 ) 8. The covenant with Abimelech (Gen. 22:22-34) Isaac, the promised seed, was born at the set time as God had spoken. As there was a set... read more

L.M. Grant

L. M. Grant's Commentary on the Bible - Genesis 21:1-34

THE PROMISE FULFILLED IN ISAAC Now the grace of God bears its most important fruit in the history of Abraham. Sarah, at the unlikely age of 90 years, gives birth to Isaac, at the time God Himself had appointed (v.2). Though faith (that of Abraham) had waited long, till he was 100 years of age, yet grace (as seen in Sarah) eventually bore the fruit that God had promised. This pictures the fact that believers throughout the Old Testament had waited through centuries before the grace of God is... read more

James Gray

James Gray's Concise Bible Commentary - Genesis 21:9-34

ISAAC ’S BIRTH , SARAH ’S DEATH THE BONDWOMAN AND HER SON (CHAP. 21) There is little requiring explanation in this chapter, but Genesis 21:9-13 should not be passed without a look at Galatians 4:21-31 . Christians are the spiritual seed of Abraham, and those who would supplement faith in Christ by the works of the law are the children of the bond-woman, who have no place with the children of the promise. God, however, is not unmindful of Hagar and Ishmael, nor of His promise to Abraham... read more

Joseph Parker

The People's Bible by Joseph Parker - Genesis 21:1-34

Ishmael Gen 21:14 The first feeling we have in reading the story of Hagar and Ishmael is that they were both most cruelly used. If you were to read this story in the newspapers, as an incident happening in our own time, you would strongly condemn both Abraham and Sarah his wife. Hagar and Ishmael were cast forth out of the house of Abraham. Hagar received from Abraham "bread and a bottle of water," and she and her child "departed and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba." They were sent... read more

Robert Hawker

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary - Genesis 21:14-16

And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took bread, and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and the child, and sent her away: and she departed, and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba. And the water was spent in the bottle, and she cast the child under one of the shrubs. And she went, and sat her down over against him a good way off, as it were a bowshot: for she said, Let me not see the death of the child. And she sat over against him, and lift up... read more

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