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The Pulpit Commentary - Romans 5:12-21

Representative responsibility. In last section we saw the blessed state into which the justified believer comes—a state of peace, of gracious acceptance, of glorious hope, of joy in God. The apostle in the present section expounds the relation in which mankind stands to the two great representatives, Adam and Christ. We cannot do better than consider these two representatives in the order named, and how they are related to the race. I. THE FIRST ADAM AS REPRESENTATIVE OF ... read more

Albert Barnes

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible - Romans 5:12-21

Romans 5:12-21 has been usually regarded as the most difficult part of the New Testament. It is not the design of these notes to enter into a minute criticism of contested points like this. They who wish to see a full discussion of the passage, may find it in the professedly critical commentaries; and especially in the commentaries of Tholuck and of Professor Stuart on the Romans. The meaning of the passage in its general bearing is not difficult; and probably the whole passage would have been... read more

Joseph Benson

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments - Romans 5:12-13

Romans 5:12-13. Wherefore This refers to all the preceding discourse, from which the apostle infers what follows: he does not therefore make a digression, but returns to speak again of sin and righteousness; as if he had said, “We may from these premises infer, that the benefit which we believers receive from Christ is equal to the detriment we derive from Adam; yea, is on the whole greater than that.” For, as by one man That is, Adam, the common father of the human species; (he is... read more

Donald C. Fleming

Bridgeway Bible Commentary - Romans 5:12-21

Adam and Christ (5:12-21)The Bible views the human race as existing originally in Adam. Therefore, when Adam sinned, humankind in general was involved in his sin. This doctrine is known as original sin; that is, humankind sinned originally in Adam (12).It is true that sin is disobedience to a law, whether that law is in the form of the commandment God gave to Adam or in the form of the law-code he gave to Moses. Yet sin is present even where there is no law. This is clearly seen in the biblical... read more

E.W. Bullinger

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes - Romans 5:12

Wherefore = On account of ( App-104 .Romans 5:2; Romans 5:2 ) this. Having described the fruits of sin, the apostle now goes on to deal with the root. as = just as. man . App-123 . Compare 1 Corinthians 15:21 . sin . App-128 . world . App-129 . death, &c . = by means of sin, death. passed = passed through. upon = unto. App-104 . for that = because. Greek. eph ' ( App-104 .) ho . have . Omit. sinned . i.e. in Adam, as representative. See Romans 3:23 . App-128 . read more

James Burton Coffman

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible - Romans 5:12

Therefore, as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin; and so death passed unto all people, for that all sinned.The righteousness of God's character needed the apostle's attention in another area, that being in respect of that incredibly awful truth that because of only one man's sin, and only a single sin at that, death had passed upon the entire race of people. In this verse, one is confronted with the impenetrable mystery of the fall of the human family in that sad... read more

Thomas Coke

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible - Romans 5:12

Romans 5:12.— Here the Apostle advances his third and last argument, to prove the extensiveness of the divine grace, or that it reaches to all mankind as well as to the Jews. His argument stands thus: "The consequences of Christ's obedience extend as far as the consequences of Adam's disobedience; but those extend to all mankind; and therefore so do the consequences of Christ's obedience." Now if the Jews will not allow the Gentiles any interest in Abraham, as not being naturally descended from... read more

Robert Jamieson; A. R. Fausset; David Brown

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Romans 5:12

12. Wherefore—that is, Things being so; referring back to the whole preceding argument. as by one man—Adam. sin—considered here in its guilt, criminality, penal desert. entered into the world, and death by sin—as the penalty of sin. and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned—rather, "all sinned," that is, in that one man's first sin. Thus death reaches every individual of the human family, as the penalty due to himself. (So, in substance, BENGEL, HODGE, PHILIPPI). Here we should... read more

Thomas Constable

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable - Romans 5:12

The first verse of this section (Romans 5:12-21) picks up the idea of future salvation from Romans 5:9-10.Paul did not call Adam and Christ by name when he first spoke of them but referred to each as "one man." The key word "one" occurs 14 times in Romans 5:12-21. He thereby stressed the unity of the federal head with those under his authority who are also "men" (i.e., human beings).We might interpret this verse as meaning that Adam only set a bad example for mankind that everyone has followed... read more

Thomas Constable

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable - Romans 5:12-21

E. The restorative effects of justification 5:12-21Justification by faith not only carries with it many benefits (Romans 5:1-11), but it also overcomes the effects of the Fall. Paul’s final argument in support of justification by faith involves a development of his previous emphasis on the solidarity that the saved experience with their Savior (Romans 5:1-2; Romans 5:9-10). In this section (Romans 5:12-21) he expanded that idea by showing that just as Adam’s sin has affected all people, so... read more

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