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Deserted (forsake, abandon, leave, left) (1459) (egkataleipo from en = in + kataleipo = forsake, desert) means literally to leave down in. It conveys the sense of deserting someone in a set of circumstances that are against them. The idea is to let one down, to desert, abandon, leave in the lurch, leave one helpless. In Romans 9:39 egkataleipo means to cause to remain or to exist after a point in time. Vine - egkataleipo denotes (a) "to leave behind, among, leave surviving," Romans 9:29; (b) "to forsake, abandon, leave in straits, or helpless," said by, or of, Christ, Matthew 27:46; Mark 15:34; Acts 2:27,31; of men, 2 Corinthians 4:9; 2 Timothy 4:10,16; by God, Hebrews 13:5; of things, by Christians (negatively), Hebrews 10:25 (Forsake - Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words) Friberg (summary) - (1) of a posterity leave behind (Ro 9.29); (2) forsake, abandon, desert (Mt 27.46); (3) as allowing to remain leave (Acts 2.27); (4) of ceasing from an activity leave off, stop (Heb 10.25) Wuest on egkataleipo in Heb 13:5 - "The meaning of the word is that of forsaking someone in a state of defeat or helplessness in the midst of hostile circumstances." Vincent on egkataleipo - The compounded preposition en indicates a condition or circumstances in which one has been left, as the common phrase left in the lurch. Desert (Webster, et al) - to withdraw from or leave usually without intent to return; to leave in the lurch ?desert a friend in trouble>; to quit one's post, allegiance, or service without leave or justification; especially : to abandon military duty without leave and without intent to return Abandon (Webster, et al) - to withdraw from often in the face of danger or encroachment ?abandon ship>: Abandon suggests that the thing or person left may be helpless without protection ?abandoned children? Forsake (Webster, et al) - suggests an action more likely to bring impoverishment or bereavement to that which is forsaken than its exposure to physical dangers (a forsaken lover); to renounce or turn away from entirely (friends have forsaken her, forsook the theater for politics). To quit or leave entirely; to desert; to abandon; to depart from. Friends and flatterers forsake us in adversity. In the Bible the word forsake and its synonym abandon were used in two ways: in one meaning, forsake was a verb that meant to forget or discontinue performing a specific action; in the other meaning, forsake conveyed the abandonment of individuals who had no one else to care for their distresses. Both uses are important in the Bible, and when God speaks of Israel, he links the two uses. Because women were far more helpless than men, requiring legal, financial and physical protection from men, the individuals most often abandoned or forsaken in the Bible are women. It is notable that of the ten occurrences of this verb in the NT, half are in quotes from the OT suggesting that to truly understand this word one must look at the consequently, its meaning must be understood in terms of the language of the Septuagint (LXX) uses. The root verb kataleipo (from kata = intensifies or strengthens the meaning of leipo = to leave behind, forsake, to be wanting or deficient) literally means to leave behind or leave remaining (of a person or place - Mt 4:13, 16:4, 21:17, He 11:27). Kataleipo is often used to indicate abandoning a heritage, giving up riches, and leaving one's native land. Figuratively kataleipo was used to mean "neglect" (Acts 6:2). Kataleipo conveys a strong sense of to abandon or forsake (as forsaking true Christianity 2Pe 2:15). Egkataleipo - 10x in 10v - NAS Usage = abandon(1), abandoned(1), deserted(2), forsake(1), forsaken(3), forsaking(1), left(1). Matthew 27:46 About the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, "ELI, ELI, LAMA SABACHTHANI?" that is, "MY GOD, MY GOD, WHY HAVE YOU FORSAKEN ME?" Comment: On the Cross Jesus cries out quoting Ps 22:1 [which also uses egkataleipo], a cry which expresses the completeness of His abandonment at His lowest (Ps 38:10; 71:9). Mark 15:34 At the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, "ELOI, ELOI, LAMA SABACHTHANI?" which is translated, "MY GOD, MY GOD, WHY HAVE YOU FORSAKEN ME?" Acts 2:27 BECAUSE YOU WILL NOT ABANDON MY SOUL TO HADES, NOR ALLOW YOUR HOLY ONE TO UNDERGO DECAY (Quoting Ps 16:10 which also uses egkataleipo). Comment: Peter quotes Ps 16:10, affirming that the Messiah would be abandoned in Hades (also Acts 2:31), because being abandoned by God would mean rejection (1Ki 8:57; 2Chr 15:2; Pr 4:6), an act which is unthinkable regarding His Beloved Son in Whom He was well pleased. Acts 2:31 he looked ahead and spoke of the resurrection of the Christ, that HE WAS NEITHER ABANDONED TO HADES, NOR DID His flesh SUFFER DECAY. Romans 9:29-note And just as Isaiah foretold, "UNLESS THE LORD OF SABAOTH HAD LEFT TO US A POSTERITY, WE WOULD HAVE BECOME LIKE SODOM, AND WOULD HAVE RESEMBLED GOMORRAH." 2 Corinthians 4:9 persecuted, but not forsaken; struck down, but not destroyed; 2 Timothy 4:10-note for Demas, having loved this present world, has deserted me and gone to Thessalonica; Crescens has gone to Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia. Wuest comments that deserted: tells us that Demas had not only left Paul so far as fellowship was concerned, but he had left him in the lurch also, so far as the work of the gospel was concerned. He had been one of Paul's dependable and trusted helpers. Paul said that he let him down. This latter expression, so often heard today, was in common use in Paul's day. Our Lord used it while on the Cross (Matt. 27:46), and it is used in Hebrews 13:5. The Greek word is however stronger than the English words. It is made up of three words, "to leave" (leipo), "down" (kata), and "in" (en), that is, to forsake one who is in a set of circumstances that are against him. It was a cruel blow to Paul. Right to the last, his intense nature impelled him to do what he could in the service of the Lord. He was awaiting the executioner's axe. Now, one whom he had trusted, had let him down. Paul was in prison, his freedom of action curtailed. (Wuest, K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans) MacArthur notes that egkataleipo is: a strong verb that means to utterly abandon and leave someone helpless in a dire situation. Perhaps the sacrifice of many comforts, including the probable loss of his own freedom, became too high a price for Demas. He was a fair-weather disciple, who had never considered the cost of genuine commitment to Christ. He may have been caught up emotionally with the idea of a noble cause, which he did his part to serve when the demands were not great. But when the cause became costly, he was nowhere to be found. (MacArthur, J. 2 Timothy. Chicago: Moody Press) 2 Timothy 4:16 At my first defense no one supported me, but all deserted me; may it not be counted against them. Hebrews 10:25-note not forsaking our own assembling together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another; and all the more as you see the day drawing near. Comment: Some of the recipients of this letter were, under stress of persecution, absenting themselves from the Christian assemblies. They are exhorted not to egkataleipo, that is, let down in their attendance upon these meetings, or abandon them. They are, on the other hand to exhort each other to continued attendance, and in view of the fact of the approach of the time when the Lord would come. (Wuest, K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans) Hebrews 13:5-note Make sure that your character is free from the love of money, being content with what you have; for He Himself has said, "I WILL NEVER DESERT (aniemi = literally to send back) YOU, NOR WILL I EVER FORSAKE (egkataleipo) YOU," Comment: The English "hides" the fact that the Spirit has inspired five negatives in this verse to emphasize the utter impossibility that God will ever desert us. In the Greek, the promise is very emphatic, "I will never, never, never leave thee." The promise to never leave was made to Joshua when he succeeded Moses : [Dt 1:7-8, Jos 1:5,9] and is a promise consummated in the Great Commission by Jesus [Mt 28:20, cp Acts 18:9-10 cp 1Chr 28:20] Egkataleipo - 19" class="scriptRef">19.14" class="scriptRef">147x in the non-apocryphal Septuagint (LXX) - Ge 24:27; 31.8" class="scriptRef">8.15" class="scriptRef">28" class="scriptRef">28" class="scriptRef">28:15; 6" class="scriptRef">6.43" class="scriptRef">Lev 26:43; 10.31" class="scriptRef">Num 10:31; Deut 4:31; 12:19; 20" class="scriptRef">20" class="scriptRef">28:20; 31:6, 8, 16; 32:15, 18" class="scriptRef">18; Josh 1:5; 22.3" class="scriptRef">22:3; 24:20; Jdg 2:12f, 20; 10:6, 10, 13" class="scriptRef">13" class="scriptRef">13; Ruth 2:20; 1Sam 8:8; 12:10; 1Kgs 8:57; 9:9; 12:8, 13; 19:10, 14; 21.21" class="scriptRef">21:21; 2Ki 2:4, 6; 4:30; 7:7; 9:8; 14:26; 17.16" class="scriptRef">17:16; 21:22; 22:17; 1Chr 14:12; 28:20; 2Chr 7:19, 22; 10:13; 11.14" class="scriptRef">11:14; 12:1, 5; 13:10f; 15:2; 21:10; 24:18, 20, 24f; 29:6; 32:31; 25" class="scriptRef">34:25; Ezra 8:22; 9:9f; Neh 5:10; 9:17, 19, 28, 31; 10:39; 13:11; Job 20:13; Ps 9:10; 10:14; 16:10; 22:1; 27:9f; 37:8, 25, 28, 33; 38:10, 21; 40:12; 71:9, 11, 18; 89:30; 94:14; 119:8, 87; 140:8; Pr 2:13; 4:2, 6; 24:14; 27:10; 28:4; Isa 1:4, 8f, 28; 16:8; 17:9; 24:12; 32:14; 41:9, 17; 42:16; 49:14; 58:2; 60:15; 62:12; 65:11; Jer 1:16; 2:13; 4:29; 5:7; 9:13, 19; 12:7; 14:5; 16:11; 17:11, 13; 19:4; 22:9; 25:38; 49:25; 51:9; Ezek 8:12; 9:9; 20:8; 23:8; 24:21; 36:4; Dan 9:11; 10:8; 11:30; Hos 4:10; 5:7; 11:9; Jonah 2:8; Mal 2:10f, 14ff. Here are a few uses from the Septuagint... Genesis 24:27 He said, "Blessed be the LORD, the God of my master Abraham, who has not forsaken (Hebrew = azab 05800 = abandon, forsake, let go of; Lxx = egkataleipo) His lovingkindness and His truth toward my master; as for me, the LORD has guided me in the way to the house of my master's brothers." Genesis 28:15 "Behold, I am with you and will keep you wherever you go, and will bring you back to this land; for I will not leave (Hebrew = azab 05800 = abandon, forsake, let go of; Lxx = egkataleipo) you until I have done what I have promised you." Deuteronomy 28:20 "The LORD will send upon you curses, confusion, and rebuke, in all you undertake to do, until you are destroyed and until you perish quickly, on account of the evil of your deeds, because you have forsaken (Hebrew = azab 05800 = abandon, forsake, let go of; Lxx = egkataleipo) Me. Deuteronomy 31:6 "Be strong and courageous, do not be afraid or tremble at them, for the LORD your God is the one who goes with you. He will not fail you or forsake (Hebrew = azab = abandon, forsake, let go of; Lxx = egkataleipo) you." (cp similar declarations in Dt 31:8) Deuteronomy 32:15 "But Jeshurun grew fat and kicked-- You are grown fat, thick, and sleek-- Then he forsook (Hebrew = natash; Lxx = egkataleipo) God who made him, and scorned the Rock of his salvation. Joshua 1:5 "No man will be able to stand before you all the days of your life. Just as I have been with Moses, I will be with you; I will not fail you or forsake (Hebrew = azab 05800 = abandon, forsake, let go of; Lxx = egkataleipo) you. Comment: Note the repetition of the negation (Dt 31:6, 8, Joshua 1:5), which reinforces the certainty of God's help. The idea is that He will never, never, never, in any circumstance whatsoever fail or forsake us! Egkataleipo used in a negative statement is a strong affirmation of the unchangeableness of His providence. Ruth 2:20 Naomi said to her daughter-in-law, "May he be blessed of the LORD who has not withdrawn (Hebrew = azab 05800 = abandon, forsake, let go of; Lxx = egkataleipo) his kindness to the living and to the dead." Again Naomi said to her, "The man is our relative, he is one of our closest relatives." Psalm 9:10 And those who know Your name will put their trust in You, For You, O LORD, have not forsaken (Hebrew = azab = abandon, forsake, let go of; Lxx = egkataleipo) those who seek You. Comment: Ignorance is worst when it amounts to ignorance of God, and knowledge is best when it exercises itself upon the name of God. This most excellent knowledge leads to the most excellent grace of faith. O, to learn more of the attributes and character of God. Unbelief, that hooting night bird, cannot live in the light of divine knowledge, it flies before the sun of God's great and gracious name. If we read this verse literally, there is, no doubt, a glorious fulness of assurance in the names of God. We have recounted them in the "Hints for Preachers," and would direct the reader's attention to them. By knowing his name is also meant an experimental acquaintance with the attributes of God, which are every one of them anchors to hold the soul from drifting in seasons of peril. The Lord may hide his face for a season from his people, but he never has utterly, finally, really, or angrily forsaken them that seek him. Let the poor seekers draw comfort from this fact, and let the finders rejoice yet more exceedingly, for what must be the Lord's faithfulness to those who find if he is so gracious to those who seek. (Spurgeon) Psalm 37:8 Cease from anger and forsake (Hebrew = azab = abandon, forsake, let go of; Lxx = egkataleipo) wrath; Do not fret; it leads only to evildoing. Comment: Cease from anger and forsake wrath. Especially anger against the arrangements of Providence, and jealousies of the temporary pleasures of those who are so soon to be banished from all comfort. Anger anywhere is madness, here it is aggravate insanity. Yet since anger will try to keep us company, we must resolvedly forsake it. Fret not thyself in any wise to do evil. By no reasonings and under no circumstances be led into such a course. Fretfulness lies upon the verge of great sin. Many who have indulged a murmuring disposition have at last come to sin, in order to gain their fancied rights. Beware of carping at others, study to be yourself found in the right way; and as you would dread outward sin, tremble at inward repining. (Spurgeon) Psalm 37:25 I have been young and now I am old, Yet I have not seen the righteous forsaken Or his descendants begging bread. Comment: Never are the righteous forsaken; that is a rule without exception. Seldom indeed do their seed beg bread; and although it does occasionally occur, through dissipation, idleness, or some other causes on the part of their sons, yet doubtless it is so rare a thing that there are many alive who never saw it. Go into the union house and see how few are the children of godly parents; enter the gaol and see how much rarer still is the case. Poor minster's sons often become rich. I am not old, but I have seen families of the poor godly become rich, and have seen the Lord reward the faithfulness of the father in the success of the son, so that I have often thought that the best way to endow one's seed with wealth is to become poor for Christ's sake. (Spurgeon) Psalm 37:28 For the LORD loves justice And does not forsake His godly ones; They are preserved forever, But the descendants of the wicked will be cut off. Comment: And forsaketh not his saints. This would not be right, and, therefore, shall never be done. God is as faithful to the objects of his love as he is just towards all mankind. They are preserved for ever. By covenant engagements their security is fixed, and by suretyship fulfilments that safety is accomplished; come what may, the saints are preserved in Christ Jesus, and because he lives, they shall live also. A king will not lose his jewels, nor will Jehovah lose his people. As the manna in the golden pot, which else had melted, was preserved in the ark of the covenant beneath the mercyseat, so shall the faithful be preserved in the covenant by the power of Jesus their propitiation. (Spurgeon) Psalm 71:9 Do not cast me off in the time of old age; Do not forsake me when my strength fails. Comment: Forsake me not when my strength faileth. Bear with me, and endure my infirmities. To be forsaken of God is the worst of all conceivable ills, and if the believer can be but clear of that grievous fear, he is happy: no saintly heart need be under any apprehension upon this point. Psalm 71:18 And even when I am old and gray, O God, do not forsake me, Until I declare Your strength to this generation, Your power to all who are to come. Psalm 119:8 I shall keep Your statutes; Do not forsake me utterly! Beth. Psalm 119:87 They almost destroyed me on earth, But as for me, I did not forsake Your precepts. Proverbs 4:2 For I give you sound teaching; Do not abandon my instruction. Proverbs 4:6 "Do not forsake her, and she will guard you; Love her, and she will watch over you. Isaiah 1:4 Alas, sinful nation, People weighed down with iniquity, Offspring of evildoers, Sons who act corruptly! They have abandoned the LORD, They have despised the Holy One of Israel, They have turned away from Him. Isaiah 1:28 But transgressors and sinners will be crushed together, And those who forsake the LORD will come to an end. They forsook Paul in his state of "seeming defeat" and "helplessness" in midst of hostile circumstances. (cp Jn 16:33). But see (2Ti 4:21) where at least 4 persons were named who had not deserted Paul. Nothing more is known of them but their loyalty is recorded for all eternity. One cannot fully assess the long term potential ramifications of a simple act of kindness.

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