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Consult (4323)(prosanatithemi from prós = towards, in addition to + anatíthemi from ana = up + tithemi = to put) means to lay up in addition, to impart or communicate further (Gal 2:6) or by way of consultation, to confer with, consult as in the present passage. Prosanatithemi is used only in Gal 1:16 and Gal 2:6 ("contributed"). The root verb anatithemi means to set forth one's cause (Acts 25:14), to expound with a request for counsel, approval, or decision, to communicate (anatithemi in Gal. 2:2). The shorter form anatithemi, is the less intensive word simply signifying the imparting of information, rather than conferring with others to seek advice. To go to someone for advice. To present one's cause to another as for approval or judgment (Gal 1:16). In other words in Gal 1:16 the idea is “to lay a matter before others so as to obtain counsel or instruction." (Vine) John Brown - The word translated “conferred (consult),” properly signifies ‘to impose a new burden.’ In the classics, the middle voice is used in the sense,—‘I allow a burden to be imposed on myself—I undertake some difficult affair.’ It is sometimes used by the later writers with the dative of a person, to signify ‘to take counsel or advice of a person,’ as he who asks advice lays a burden on the person consulted. This is its meaning here. (Original Reference) Thayer says "with a dative of the person to put oneself upon another by going to him (pros), i.e. to commit or betake oneself to another namely, for the purpose of consulting him, hence, to consult, to take one into counsel. (Gal 1:16)" To contribute or add something to someone. To add from one's store (the force of the middle voice), to impart, to lay before (Gal 2:6). Vine - prosanatithemi, lit., “to lay upon in addition,” came to be used in the sense of putting oneself before another, for the purpose of consulting him; hence simply “to consult, to take one into counsel, to confer.” With this meaning it is used only in Gal. 1:16. In Gal. 2:2, a shorter form, anatithemi, is used, which means “to lay before” (kjv, “communicated unto”). This less intensive word may have been purposely used there by the apostle to suggest that he described to his fellow apostles the character of his teaching, not to obtain their approval or their advice concerning it, but simply that they might have the facts of the case before them on which they were shortly to adjudicate. Prosanatithemi was also used to signify “to communicate, to impart.” With this meaning it is used only in Gal. 2:6, in the middle voice, the suggestion being to “add” from one’s store of things. In regard to his visit to Jerusalem the apostle says “those who were of repute imparted nothing to me” (kjv, “in conference added”), that is to say, they neither modified his teaching nor “added” to his authority. BDAG - (1) to add something to an existing amount, add or contribute (Gal 2:6). (2) to take up a matter with, consult with (Gal 1:16) Wuest - The word conferred (consult) deserves careful study. It is prosanatithemi. It means “to betake one’s self to another for the purpose of consulting him.” In pagan writers it was used of consulting soothsayers and the like. It was as if Paul said, “I did not consult with anyone in order to learn the opinion of others as to this revelation I received, or to obtain instruction from them, or guidance, or advice.” Flesh and blood - Human nature in general. Paul did not consult with other human beings, other people, probably especially other human authorities. Paul asserts that his commission and message came to him directly from God, and that neither was affected in any way by human intervention. As John Brown expounds this... ‘I neither consulted my own reason or inclination, nor did I seek instruction from others: I committed myself entirely to Divine guidance and teaching. I did not consult with any man. I did not seek instruction from any man. I did not inquire at other Christians if the views of Christianity which had been conveyed into my mind were correct or not. I asked at no man what I was to preach, or where I was to preach. I gave myself up to the guidance of the Divine impulse; and immediately commenced speaking the things of the Spirit, not in words which man’s wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth.’ (Reference) ><>><>><> F B Meyer - It pleased God … to reveal his Son in me. - O soul of man, has this revelation ever been thy experience? Dost thou know that Christ is in thee? If thou truly believest in Him, there is no doubt of it. “Know ye not as to your own selves, how that Jesus Christ is in you, except ye be reprobates?” And yet thou mayest be in ignorance of this transcendent possession. Ask God to reveal His Son in thee, to make thee know experimentally the riches of the glory of this mystery. He will rend the veil of the inner life in twain from the top to the bottom, and in the most holy place of thy spirit disclose the Shekinah of His eternal presence. Two conditions only must be fulfilled. Thou must be prepared to yield thine own will to the cross; and to wait before God in the silence and solitude of thy spirit. ><>><>><> Oswald Chambers - When in doubt, haul yourself up short and concentrate on God and every time you do, you will find that God will engineer your circumstances and open the way perfectly securely, the condition on your part being that you concentrate on God....You feel amazed at the sense of God’s call, and in your eagerness you talk to someone else about it, and you find that they much prefer to talk about their breakfast. Then comes the danger that you are apt to become contemptuous. Keep that profound relationship between your soul and God. ><>><>><> F B Meyer - Galatians 1:15–16 It was the good pleasure of God … to reveal his Son in me. If you have truly believed in the Son of God, it is certain that He, by the Spirit, has taken up his abode in your heart. But perhaps He is hidden in the deeps of your nature, as the young Joash in the heart of the Temple. He is, therefore, unable to exert that influence on your inner thought and outward life that He should. Is it not befitting that you should ask the Father to reveal his Son in you? He has been revealed to you as the Divine Substitute, but not in you as the source and spring of holiness, Beneath the body with its physical existence, and the mind with the play of intellect, lies the spirit of man, like the most holy place in the Temple of old. That is the shrine in which the Shechinah of Christ’s presence shines, and in which we can hold fellowship with Him face to face. Alas, that so heavy a veil of unbelief, of absorption in the world around us, of inattention, hangs between Him and us! Would that the strong hands which rent the veil in twain when our Savior died would rend in twain all that deprives us of this inspiring and most helpful vision of the Son, so that we might anticipate the eternal years! But such revelations are only given that we may better help others. Not for selfish enjoyment, but for ministering help. Hence the apostle says, “that I might preach Him among the Gentiles.” Be pleased, O Father, to give us that revelation, that we may speak as those who have seen the great sight, and need no further conference with flesh and blood! Then, like the apostles of old, we shall go forth among men, saying, “We cannot but speak the things which we have seen and heard.” (Meyer, F. B. Our Daily Homily) Galatians 1:17 nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those who were apostles before me; but I went away to Arabia, and returned once more to Damascus. (went (KJV): Ga 1:18 Ac 9:20-25)(returned (KJV): 2Co 11:32,33) Go up to Jerusalem - "Went up is from anerchomai. It was used especially of visiting Jerusalem which was situated in the highlands of Palestine. Katerchomai was used of the descending journey from the city. The religious position of Jerusalem as the seat of the Temple and the mother-city of the Church, and its geographical position on the central heights of Palestine, were the factors that suggested the expressions “going up” and “going down,” when a journey was made to that city and then back to one’s home." (Wuest) Before me (pro emou) - This short clause would intimate that Paul was then an apostle as well as those in Jerusalem, and the only difference was in the priority of the date of their apostleship. As an aside NOTE PROGRESSION IN PAUL'S ESTIMATE OF SELF: 1Co 15:9 (55AD) For I am the least of the apostles, who am not fit to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God. Eph 3:8 (61AD) To me, the very least of all saints, this grace was given, to preach to the Gentiles the unfathomable riches of Christ, 1Ti 1:15 (63-66AD) It is a trustworthy statement, deserving full acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, among whom I am foremost of all. Went away to Arabia - When did this occur? This period in Paul's life probably fits between Acts 9:22 and Acts 9:23 (See Jensen's chronological diagram ). Arabia is the transliteration (spelling) of a Hebrew word meaning “an arid, thus a sparsely populated place.” Acts 9:22 But Saul kept increasing in strength and confounding the Jews who lived at Damascus by proving that this Jesus is the Christ. Acts 9:23. And when many days had elapsed, the Jews plotted together to do away with him John Brown - he went into Arabia, for the purpose, it may be, of yielding himself up in its solitudes to solemn meditation and communion with his divine Master. No proof can be derived from these words that Paul preached in Arabia. There is no trace of that in the Acts of the Apostles. (Reference) Spurgeon — What he did there, we do not know; but probably he had a time of quiet meditation and prayer, all alone: “I went into Arabia.” The best thing we can do, sometimes, is to get away from the voices of men, and listen only to the voice of God: (Spurgeon's Exposition) Wuest supposes that Paul "needed to be alone with God. He needed time and isolation in order to think. The revelation of the Son of God had blasted away the foundations of the Pharisaic thought structure which he had been building up with such consummate skill and zeal, and it had come tumbling down in ruins about his head. This revelation also furnished him with another foundation upon which to build a new theological structure. But the replacement of the ruined structure with a new one could not be the work of a day or a month. There in Arabia, isolated from all human contact, alone with God, the great apostle restudied his Old Testament scriptures, not now with the Pharisaic traditions vitiating his thinking, but, led by the Holy Spirit, with the central fact of the Cross of the Lord Jesus as the controlling factor in his meditations. Out of all this study emerged the Pauline system of doctrine as we have it presented in Romans. Oswald Chambers - The nutriment of a man’s life comes when he is alone with God; he gets his direction in the desert experiences. Dennis Egner - As we run the race of the Christian life, we need to end well. The apostle Paul is an example of a good finisher. He received Christ on the Damascus road. He attended "seminary" in the Arabian desert (Galatians 1:17-18). He served Christ in spite of hardship and persecution. He opened Europe to the Gospel. And at the close of his life, he could say with confidence, "I have kept the faith" (2 Timothy 4:7). What about us? What stalls our spiritual engines? What causes us to break down? When we find ourselves out of the running, we need to diagnose the problem, make the necessary repairs, and get back into the race. God needs people He can count on to cross the finish line. Returned once more to Damascus - "After continuing in Arabia for some time, he returned to Damascus, which at that time was under the government of Aretas, the king of Arabia (2Cor 11:32). During all this time he had never met with one of the apostles, nor does it appear that he had intercourse with any individual of note among the Christians. And when, after three years, he did at length go up to Jerusalem, he received neither instruction nor authority from the apostles." (Brown) The significance of this episode for us - In the busy mart, amid life’s dusky lanes and accumulating cares, we lose and forget our God. Our books are too much with us; friends and social life make the hours busy with what is human; and the claims of business are of increasing urgency. We must find for ourselves a desert place, where, occasionally for prolonged seasons, and daily for a short season, we may receive the Lord’s anointing. (S. Pearson, M. A.) Meditation (See Meditate or Primer on Biblical Meditation) is the life of the soul; action is the outcome of meditation, honour is the reward of action. So meditate that thou may do; so do that thou may be honored; so accept honour as to give God the glory. (The Biblical Illustrator) Galatians 1:18 Then three years later I went up to Jerusalem to become acquainted with Cephas, and stayed with him fifteen days. (I went up: Acts 9:26-29 Acts 22:17,18) Then - Marks time sequence (See importance of expressions of time). Three years later - It is interesting to recall that the original apostles had been taught by Jesus for three years. This would include Paul's time in Arabia and Damascus, but how long in each location is not clear from Scripture. Jensen's chronological diagram ). Brown notes that " It is impossible to say certainly whether these three years are to be dated from Paul’s departure from Jerusalem to Damascus, or from his return from Arabia to that city. This is probably the visit of which we have an account, Acts 9:26, 27. His object was to “see Peter.” (Brown) Oswald Chambers - Think of Paul after three years in Arabia, where he was altogether broken and then re-made by the grace of God, coming to Peter and being with him for fifteen days—can you imagine what happened? How Peter would go over the whole story, beginning with the scenes on the lake right on to the Garden of Gethsemane and the Cross; and Peter would take Paul to the Communion service, and they would see widows there, made so by Paul. Think what a memory like that would mean to a man of acute sensitiveness. It takes great courage for a forgiven man to come in contact with those whom he has wronged. Luke describes an event which would be compatible with Paul's first visit to Jerusalem... Acts 9:26 And when he had come to Jerusalem, he was trying to associate with the disciples; and they were all afraid of him, not believing that he was a disciple. 27 But Barnabas took hold of him and brought him to the apostles and described to them how he had seen the Lord on the road, and that He had talked to him, and how at Damascus he had spoken out boldly in the name of Jesus. 28 And he was with them moving about freely in Jerusalem, speaking out boldly in the name of the Lord. 29 And he was talking and arguing with the Hellenistic Jews; but they were attempting to put him to death. (See also Acts 22:17-18 which could be during the first visit, although one cannot be dogmatic) To become acquainted with Cephas (Simon Peter - Cephas = Greek spelling of a Chaldaic word meaning “a rock") - As Paul had stately earlier his message was not obtained from men, but here he emphasizes that was still in the mainstream of apostolic tradition of men like Peter. Spurgeon — That is, “after three years,” which showed that he did not go there to receive any commission from Peter. He had been for three years working for his Lord and Master before he ever saw the face of an apostle. (Spurgeon's Exposition) Galatians 1:19 But I did not see any other of the apostles except James, the Lord's brother. (James: Mt 10:3 Mk 3:18 Lk 6:15 Ac 1:13, James the son of Alphaeus, Jas 1:1 Jude 1:1)(the Lord's: Mt 13:55 Mk 6:3 1Co 9:5) James the Lord's brother - James was the recognized leader of the first church of Jerusalem (Acts 12:17, 15:13,19; Acts 21:18, Galatians 2:9), and also the most widely accepted author of the epistle of James (James 1:1). He was not one of the Twelve however, since the brethren of our Lord did not believe on Him at the time of the choosing of the Twelve. Paul confirms that James is one of the human brothers of Jesus. Recall that Christ's brothers ("His brothers, James and Joseph and Simon and Judas" did not believe in Him initially (John 7:5), but later joined their mother Mary in fellowship with the other disciples (Acts 1:14). James had been among those who had seen Christ after His resurrection (1 Corinthians 15:7). The same would then apply to Jude (Jude 1) since both James and Jude are named as among Jesus' brothers (Matthew 13:55). Galatians 1:20 (Now in what I am writing to you, I assure you before God that I am not lying.) (Ro 9:1 2Co 11:10,11,31) What I am writing to you - This refers primarily to what he had just written in Gal 1:18-19, as these were facts Paul felt clearly showed his independence from those who had been apostles prior to his call. I assure you before God - This was a solemn oath given "Coram Deo" before the face of God. Presumably the Judaizers had promoted various lies and falsehoods regarding Paul's dependence of the other apostles. Wuest adds that "The logical inference is that they had circulated statements to the effect that Paul had spent much time at Jerusalem with the apostles there. He denies this charge most vehemently." John Eadie - Augustine, in loc., enters into the question of the lawfulness of swearing. One can scarcely suppose that the apostle would have used this solemn adjuration, unless the statement had been liable to be questioned, or a different account of his early Christian history had been in circulation. It would seem that a totally different account of his visits to Jerusalem after his conversion, and of the relation he sustained to the elder apostles, had been in use among the Judaists, to undermine his independent authority and neutralize his teaching. And because what he now tells would contradict received opinion as to his earlier actings and journeys, he confirms what he says by a virtual oath John Brown - This is a plain intimation that oaths, on proper occasions, are not unlawful. We have similar declarations equivalent to oaths, Rom. 1:9; 2 Cor. 1:23; Rom. 9:1; 2 Cor. 11:31; 1 Thess. 2:5. (Brown) Paul repeatedly stated that he was not lying, but that his teaching came directly from God (Ro 9:1; 2 Cor. 11:31). Spurgeon — “I did not derive my knowledge of Christ from any one of these holy men, therefore I am not an imitator of any other apostle. I was sent out by Christ himself, and instructed by him by revelation, so I am an apostle of Christ as much as any of them.” (Spurgeon's Exposition) Galeazius, a gentleman of great wealth, who suffered martyrdom at St. Angelo in Italy, being much entreated by his friends to recant, replied, “Death is much sweeter to me with the testimony of truth than life with its least denial.” (The Biblical Illustrator) ><>><>><> TODAY IN THE WORD -""Staking a claim"" in the Old West was serious business. Doing so gave a person the rights over a mine or a piece of land. If a prospector found gold or silver on his claim, others would rush to stake claims nearby in hopes of striking it rich. It was not uncommon for fights to break out over who had staked a claim first or over where one claim stopped and another started. Men were known to lie, cheat, gamble, steal and even kill to get and keep their claims. ""Staking a claim"" is exactly what Paul is doing in today's reading: a claim to apostleship and apostolic authority. Not to elevate himself, but for the sake of the gospel, he proclaims his God-given authority. The Galatians must not take his words lightly! Galatians 1:21 Then I went into the regions of Syria and Cilicia. (I went: Ac 9:30 11:25,26 13:1 15:23,41 18:18 21:3)(Cilicia: Acts 6:9 Acts 21:39 Acts 22:3 Acts 23:34) Click to enlarge Then - Marks time sequence (See importance of expressions of time). Acts 9:29 And he was talking and arguing with the Hellenistic Jews; but they were attempting to put him to death. 30 But when the brethren learned of it, they brought him down to Caesarea (not C. Philippi - see map - he probably went by ship to Tarsus) and sent him away to Tarsus. Syria and Cilicia - Paul's birthplace was in Tarsus which was in the region of Cilicia - just north of Syria. We cannot ascertain from the Scriptures exactly how long Paul remained in these regions. Wuest notes that "Here we have about ten years of Paul’s life passed over in silence, between his flight from Jerusalem to Tarsus and his return to the former city for the Apostolic Council. These years were spent around Tarsus and Antioch, in Cyprus and Asia Minor." MacArthur feels that Paul " preached there until Barnabas called for him to come to Antioch in Syria." Eadie - The apostle is not stating his tour with geographical precision, but is merely showing how far he traveled away from all Judean influence and recognition. Galatians 1:22 I was still unknown by sight to the churches of Judea which were in Christ; (the churches: Ac 9:31 1Th 2:14)(in: Ro 16:7 1Co 1:30 Php 1:1 1Th 1:1 2Th 1:1)

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