Text--Isaiah 58: "Cry aloud, spare not; lift up thy voice like a trumpet, and show my people their transgression, and the house of Jacob their sins," &c. &c. My design is not to enter into a critical exposition of this chapter, but merely to make it the basis of some remarks upon private and public FASTING. In doing this I shall show: I. WHAT IS IMPLIED IN AN ACCEPTABLE FAST. II. THE IMPORTANCE OF ABSTINENCE FROM FOOD ON SUCH OCCASIONS. III. THAT HUMAN GOVERNMENTS ARE A DIVINE INSTITUTION. IV. THE PRINCIPLE UPON WHICH GOD DEALS WITH NATIONS AS SUCH. V. NOTICE THE DESIGN, PROPRIETY, AND USE OF NATIONAL FASTS. VI. POINT OUT THE DUTY OF CITIZENS, AND ESPECIALLY OF CHRISTIANS AS CITIZENS, IN RESPECT TO THEM. VII. NOTICE SOME OF THE NATIONAL SINS WHICH CALL THIS NATION TO FASTING, HUMILIATION AND PRAYER. I. What is implied in an acceptable fast. 1. It implies repentance. Fasting without repentance must be an abomination. 2. It implies such a degree of sorrow and concern as to destroy, for the time being, the appetite for food. Every one is familiar with the fact, that when the mind is strongly exercised, and a high degree of emotion exists, it, for the time being, destroys the appetite. Children, arising in the morning to go a journey, are too much excited to eat. So when persons lose their friends, or any thing else occurs that produces a strong excitement of mind, they naturally reject their food. This fact is easily accounted for on physiological principles. When the mind is strongly exercised, there is a strong determination of blood to the head. When the appetite for food is excited, there is a determination of blood to the stomach. When, therefore, the mind is strongly exercised, there is a want of appetite for food of course; because, in ordinary circumstances, there is not that determination of blood to the stomach which produces a craving for food. Therefore, 3. Acceptable fasting implies abstinence from food, for the time being. 4. It implies confession of sin to God, and to those who have been injured. 5. It implies restitution, so far as restitution is in your power. 6. It implies reformation. II. Abstinence from food important. 1. If the requisite state of mind exists, the health demands abstinence from food. When the brain is strongly exercised by the mind, if food be taken into the stomach, it will not, ordinarily, be digested; for the reason, that there is so much blood flowing to the brain as to deprive the stomach of that amount of excitement, and determination of blood to that organ, that is demanded for the purposes of digestion. In such cases food should not be taken, as it will seriously impair the health. 2. In such cases, food cannot be taken without serious detriment to the state of mind required. If the blood be diverted from the head to the stomach the strong exercise of the mind must necessarily, in a great measure, cease; but if the blood be not diverted from the head sufficient for digestion, the fermentation of food in the stomach, although it may not actually annihilate those exercises of the mind, must necessarily greatly impede them. 3. In such cases, abstinence greatly favors the healthy action of the mind, and leaves it free to pursue its investigations, and to exercise its affections, without being under the necessity of competing with the stomach, in its efforts to retain a sufficiency of blood for the brain. Who does not know, that when he has taken a full meal, he is disqualified, for a time, for close and vigorous thought? This is a physiological result. The stomach must have the excitement of a considerable determination of blood to that organ, or the process of digestion cannot go forward. And if, soon after eating a full meal, your mind be, by any means, lashed into a state of powerful excitement, you are nearly or quite sick in consequence. 4. Judicious fasting greatly aids the mind in gaining an ascendance over the bodily appetites and passions. This, also, is a physiological fact, easily explained. But into this I cannot here enter. III. Human governments are a divine institution. I remark upon the divine authority of governments in this place, because of the manifest propriety of recognizing them, upon a celebration of a National Fast. You will indulge me in speaking more at length upon this head, as their divine authority has of late been questioned. And I will quote from my recently published Skeletons on Theology: FIRST. Human governments are a necessity of human nature. 1. There is a material universe. 2. The bodies of men are material. 3. All action wastes these material bodies, and consequently they need continual sustenance. 4. Hence, we have many bodily wants. 5. Hence, the necessity of worldly goods and possessions. 6. There must be real estate. 7. It must belong to somebody. 8. There must, therefore, be all the forms of conveyancing, registry, and in short, all the forms of legal government. to settle and manage the real estate affairs of men. 9. Men have minds residing in a material body, and depending upon the organization and perfection of this body for mental development. 10. The mind receives its ideas of external objects, and the elements of all its knowledge through the bodily senses. It therefore needs books and other means of knowledge. 11. Hence, for this reason also men need property. 12. Moral beings will not agree in opinions on any subject, without similar degrees of knowledge. 13. Hence, no human community exists, or ever will exist, who on all subjects will agree in opinion. 14. This creates a necessity for human legislation and adjudication, to apply the great principle of moral law to all human affairs. 15. There are multitudes of human wants and necessities that cannot properly be met, except thro' the instrumentality of human governments. SECOND. This necessity will continue as long as human beings exist in this world. 1. This is as certain as that the human body will always need sustenance, clothing, &c. 2. It is as certain as that the human soul will always need instruction, and that the means of instruction will not grow spontaneously, without expense or labor. 3. It is as certain as that men of all ages and circumstances will never possess equal degrees of information on all subjects. 4. If all men were perfectly holy and disposed to do right, the necessity of human governments would not be set aside, because this necessity is founded in the ignorance of mankind. 5. The decisions of legislators and judges must be authoritative, so as to settle questions of disagreement in opinion, bind, and protect all parties. 6. The Bible represents human governments not only as existing, but as giving their authority and power to the support of the Church in its most prosperous state, or in the Millenium. It proves that human government will not be dispensed with when the world is holy: Isa. 49:22, 23: 'Thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I will lift up my hand to the Gentiles, and set up my standard to the people: and they shall bring thy sons in their arms, and thy daughters shall be carried upon their shoulders. And kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy nursing mothers: they shall bow down to thee with their faces toward the earth, and lick up the dust of thy feet; and thou shalt know that I am the Lord: for they shall not be ashamed that wait for me.' THIRD. Human governments are plainly recognized in the Bible as a part of the moral government of God. 1. Dan. 2:21; 'He changes the times and the seasons; He removeth kings and setteth up kings; He giveth wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to them that know understanding.' Dan. 4:17, 25: 'This matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the demand by the word of the holy ones; to the intent that the living may know that the Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever He will, and setteth up over it the basest of men.' 'They shall drive thee from men, and thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field, and they shall make thee to eat grass as oxen, and they shall wet thee with the dew of heaven, and seven times shall pass over thee, till thou know that the Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever He will.' Dan. 5: 21, Shows that this was done. Rom. 13:1-7: 'Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God. Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God; and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation. For rulers are not a terror to good works but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? Do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same: for he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil. Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only for wrath but also for conscience sake. For, for this cause pay ye tribute also: for they are God's ministers, attending continually upon this very thing. Render therefore to all their dues; tribute to whom tribute is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honor to whom honor.' Titus 3:1: 'Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and powers, to obey magistrates, to be ready to every good work.' I Peter 2:13, 14: 'Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme, or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by Him for the punishment of evil doers, and for the praise of them that do well.' These passages prove conclusively, that God establishes human governments, as a part of his moral government. 2. It is a matter of fact, that God does exert moral influences through the instrumentality of human governments. 3. It is a matter of fact, that He often executes his law, punishes vice, and rewards virtue, through the instrumentality of human governments. 4. Under the Jewish Theocracy, where God was King, it was found indispensable to have the forms of the executive department of government. FOURTH. Whose right and duty it is to govern. 1. I have said that government is a necessity. Human beings are, under God, dependent on human government to promote their highest well-being. 2. It is his right and duty to govern, who is both able and willing, in the highest and most effectual manner, to secure and promote individual and public virtue and happiness. 3. Upon him all eyes are or ought to be turned, as one whose right and whose duty it is, to sustain to them the relation of ruler. FIFTH. In what cases human legislation imposes moral obligation. 1. Not when it requires what is inconsistent with moral law. 2. Not when it is arbitrary, or not founded in right reason. But-- 3. It always imposes moral obligation when it is in accordance with moral law, or the law of nature. SIXTH. It is the duty of all men to aid in the establishment and support of human governments. 1. Because human governments are founded in the necessities of human beings. 2. As all men are in some way dependent upon them, it is the duty of every man to aid in their establishment and support. 3. As the great law of benevolence, or universal good-willing, demands the existence of human governments, all men are under a perpetual and unalterable moral obligation to aid in their establishment and support. 4. In popular or elective governments, every man having a right to vote, and every human being who has moral influence, is bound to exert that influence in the promotion of virtue and happiness. And as human governments are plainly indispensable to the highest good of man, he is bound to exert his influence to secure a legislation that is in accordance with the law of God. 5. The obligation of human beings to support and obey human governments, while they legislate upon the principles of the moral law, is as undeniable as the moral law itself. SEVENTH. It is a ridiculous and absurd dream, to suppose that human governments can ever be dispensed with in the present world. 1. Because such a supposition is entirely inconsistent with the nature of human beings. 2. It is equally inconsistent with their relations and circumstances. 3. Because it assumes, that the necessity of government is founded alone in human depravity; whereas the foundation of this necessity is human ignorance, and human depravity is only an additional reason for the existence of human governments. The primary idea of law is to teach; hence, law has a precept. It is authoritative, and therefore has a penalty. 4. Because it assumes, that men would always agree in judgment, if their hearts were right, irrespective of their degrees of information. 5. Because it sets aside one of the plainest and most unequivocal doctrines of revelation. Objection. The Kingdom of God is represented in the Bible as subverting all other kingdoms. Answer. This is true, and all that can be meant by this is, that the time will come when God shall be regarded as the supreme and universal sovereign of the universe; when his law shall be regarded as universally obligatory; when all kings, legislators, and judges shall act as his servants, declaring, applying, and administering the great principle of his law to all the affairs of human beings. Thus God will be the Supreme Sovereign, and earthly rulers will be presidents, governors, kings, and judges, under Him, and acting by his authority, as revealed in the Bible. Obj. It is objected, that God only providentially establishes human governments, and that He does not approve of their selfish and wicked administration; that He only uses them providentially, as He does Satan, for the promotion of his own designs. Ans. 1. God no where commands mankind to obey Satan; but He does command them to obey magistrates and rulers. Rom. 13:1: 'Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers: for there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God.' 1 Pet. 2:13, 14: 'Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme; or unto governors, as unto them that are sent for the punishment of evil-doers, and for the praise of them that do well.' 2. He no where recognizes Satan as his servant, sent and set by Him to administer justice and execute wrath upon the wicked; but He does this in respect to human governments. Rom. 13:2-6: 'Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God; and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation. For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? Do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same. For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid: for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the MINISTER OF GOD, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil. Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience sake. For, for this cause pay ye tribute also; for they are God's ministers, attending continually upon this very thing.' 3. It is true indeed, that God approves of nothing that is ungodly and selfish in human governments. Neither did He approve of what was ungodly and selfish in the Scribes and Pharisees; and yet Christ said to his disciples, 'The Scribes and Pharisees sit in Moses' seat. Therefore whatsoever things they command you, that observe and do; but go ye not after their works, for they say, and do not.' Here the plain common sense principle is recognized, that we are to obey when the requirement is not inconsistent with the moral law, whatever may be the character or the motive of the ruler. We are always to obey heartily as unto the Lord, and not unto men, and render obedience to magistrates for the honor and glory of God, and as doing service to Him. Obj. It is objected, that Christians should leave human governments to the management of the ungodly, and not be diverted from the work of saving souls, to intermeddle with human governments. Ans. 1. This is not being diverted from the work of saving souls. The promotion of public and private order and happiness is one of the indispensable means of saving souls. 2. It is nonsense to admit, that Christians are under an obligation to obey human government, and still have nothing to do with the choice of those who shall govern. Obj. It is objected, that we are commanded not to avenge ourselves, that 'Vengeance is mine, and I will repay, saith the Lord.' It is said, that if I may not avenge or redress my own wrongs in my own person, I may not do it through the instrumentality of human government. Ans. 1. It does not follow, that because you may not take it upon you to redress your own wrongs by a summary and personal infliction of punishment upon the transgressor, that human governments may not punish them. 2. Because all private wrongs are a public injury; and irrespective of any particular regard to your personal interest, magistrates are bound to punish crime for the public good. 3. It does not follow, because that while God has expressly forbidden you to redress your own wrongs by administering personal and private chastisement, He has expressly recognized the right and made it the duty of the public magistrate to punish crimes. Obj. It is objected, that love is so much better than law as that where love reigns in the heart, law can be universally dispensed with. Ans. 1. This supposes, that if there is only love there need be no rule of duty. 2. This objection overlooks the fact, that law is, in all worlds, the rule of duty, and that legal sanctions make up an indispensable part of that circle of motives that are suited to the nature, relations, and government of moral beings. 3. The law requires love; and nothing is law, either human or divine, that is inconsistent with universal benevolence. And to suppose that love is better than law, is to suppose that obedience to law sets aside the necessity of law. Obj. It is objected, that Christians have something else to do besides meddle with politics. Ans. 1. In a popular government politics are an indispensable part of religion. No man can possibly be benevolent or religious, without concerning himself, to a greater or less extent, with the affairs of human government. 2. It is true, that Christians have something else to do than to go with a party to do evil, or to peddle with politics in a selfish or ungodly manner. But they are bound to meddle with politics in popular governments, for the same reason that they are bound to seek the universal good of all men. Obj. It is said, that human governments are no where expressly authorized in the Bible. Ans. 1. This is a mistake. Both their existence and lawfulness are as expressly recognized in the above quoted scriptures as they can be. 2. If God did not expressly authorize them, it would still be both the right and the duty of mankind to institute human governments; because they are plainly demanded by the necessities of human nature. It is a first truth, that whatever is essential to the highest good of moral beings in any world, they have a right and are bound to do. So far, therefore, are men from needing any express authority to establish human governments, that no possible prohibition could render their establishment unlawful. It has been shown, in my lectures on moral government, that moral law is a unit--that it is that rule of action which is in accordance with the nature, relations and circumstances of moral beings--that whatever is in accordance with, and demanded by the nature, relations, and circumstances of moral beings, is obligatory on them. It is moral law, and no power in the universe can set it aside. Therefore, were the scriptures entirely silent on the subject of human governments, and on the subject of family government, as it actually is on a great many important subjects, this would be no objection to the lawfulness, and expediency; necessity, and duty of establishing human governments. Obj. It is said, that human governments are founded in and sustained by force, and that this is inconsistent with the spirit of the gospel. Ans. 1. There cannot be a difference between the spirit of the Old and New Testaments, or between the spirit of the law and the gospel, unless God has changed, and unless Christ has undertaken to make void the law, through faith, which cannot be. 'Do we make void the law through faith? God forbid: yea, we establish the law.' 2. Just human governments, and such governments only are contended for, will not exercise force, unless it is demanded to promote the highest public good. If it be necessary to this end, it can never be wrong. Nay, it must be the duty of human governments to inflict penalties, when their infliction is demanded by the public interest. Obj. It is said, that there should be no laws with penalties. Ans. This is the same as to say, there should be no law at all; for that is no law which has no penalty, but only advice. Obj. It is said, that church government is sufficient to meet the necessities of the world, without secular or state governments. Ans. 1. What! Church governments regulate commerce, make internal improvements, and undertake to manage all the business affairs of the world! 2. Church government was never established for any such end; but simply to regulate the spiritual, in distinction from the secular concerns of men--to try offenders and inflict spiritual chastisement, and never to perplex and embarrass itself with managing the business and commercial operations of the world. Obj. It is said, that were all the world holy, legal penalties would not be needed. Ans. Were all men perfectly holy, the execution of penalties would not be needed; but still, if there were law, there would be penalties; and it would be both the right and the duty of magistrates to inflict them, should their execution be called for. Obj. It is asserted, that family government is the only form of government approved of God. Ans. This is a ridiculous assertion: 1. Because God as expressly commands obedience to magistrates as to parents. 2. He makes it as absolutely the duty of magistrates to punish crime, as of parents to punish their own disobedient children. 3. The right of family government is not founded in the arbitrary will of God, but in the necessities of human beings; so that family government would be both allowable and obligatory, had God said nothing about it. 4. So, the right of human government has not its foundation in the arbitrary will of God, but in the necessities of human beings. The larger the community the more absolute the necessity of government. If, in the small circle of the family, laws and penalties are needed, how much more in the larger communities of states and nations. Now, neither the ruler of a family, nor of any other form of human government, has a right to legislate arbitrarily, or enact, or enforce any other laws, than those that are in accordance with the nature, relations, and circumstances of human beings. Nothing can be law in heaven--nothing can be law on earth; nothing can be obligatory on moral beings, but that which is founded in the nature, relations, and circumstances of moral beings. But human beings are bound to establish family governments, state governments, national governments, and, in short, whatever government may be requisite for the universal instruction, government, virtue, and happiness of the world. 5. All the reasons, therefore, for family government, hold equally in favor of state and national governments. 6. There are vastly higher and weightier reasons for governments over states and nations, than in the small communities of families.