And she said, call me not Naomi, call me Mara ,.... The one signifying "prosperity", according to Josephus F13 Antiqu. l. 5. c. 9. sect. 2. , and the other "grief"; but he is not always correct in his interpretation of Hebrew words, or to be depended on; by this indeed her different states are well enough expressed, and he rightly observes, that she might more justly be called the one than the other; but the words signify, the one "sweet" and pleasant, and the other "bitter", see Exodus 15:23 , and the reason she gives confirms it:

for the Almighty hath dealt very bitterly with me ; had wrote bitter things against her, brought bitter afflictions on her, which were very disagreeable to the flesh, as the loss of her husband, her children, and her substance; see Lamentations 3:15 .