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Isaiah 63:10 - Exposition

But they rebelled . The rebellions of Israel against God commenced in the wilderness. They rebelled at Sinai, when they set up the golden calf; at Meribah ( Numbers 20:24 ); at Shittim, when they consorted with the daughters of Moab ( Numbers 25:6 ). Under the Judges, their conduct was one long rebellion ( 2:11 ; 3:7 , 3:12 ; 4:1 ; 6:1 ; 8:33 ; 10:6 ; 13:1 ). They rebelled in Samuel's time by asking for a king ( 1 Samuel 8:5 , 1 Samuel 8:19 , 1 Samuel 8:20 ). The ten tribes rebelled under Jeroboam, and set up the idolatry of the calves at Dan and Bethel. Worse idolatries followed, and in two centuries and a half had reached such a height, that God was provoked to "remove Israel out of his sight" ( 2 Kings 17:23 ). Judah remained, but "rebelled" under Manasseh, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah, "transgressing very much after all the abominations of the heathen, and polluting the very house of the Lord at Jerusalem" ( 2 Chronicles 36:14 ). These rebellions against God vexed his Holy Spirit —"provoked him," "grieved him," "moved the Holy One in Israel" ( Psalms 78:40 , Psalms 78:41 ; Psalms 106:43 ). Therefore he was turned to be their enemy (comp. Jeremiah 30:14 ; Lamentations 2:4 , Lamentations 2:5 ). Judah had "filled up the measure of her iniquities," had gone on "until there was no remedy" ( 2 Chronicles 36:16 ). God's indignation was therefore poured out upon her without let or stint. "He cut oft' in his fierce anger all the horn of Israel: he drew back his right hand from before the enemy; he burned against Jacob like a flaming fire, which devoureth round about. He bent his bow like an enemy ; he stood with his right hand as an adversary , and slew all that were pleasant in the tabernacle of the daughter of Zion; he poured out his fury like fire. The Lord was as an enemy" ( Lamentations 2:3-5 ). He fought against them; rather, he himself fought against them. God himself, though they were "his people," yet fought against them and for the Chaldeans in that final struggle. He "gave the city into the hand of the King of Babylon" ( Jeremiah 34:2 ).

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