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Christian (5546) (Christianos from Christós = Christ from chrio = to anoint, so Christ = "Anointed One", 529 times in NT) (Christianos is used 3 times in the NT Acts 11:26; Acts 26:28; 1Peter 4:16) was the name of the disciples or followers of Christ first adopted at Antioch. The meaning of Christianos is not totally clear but seems to mean an adherent of Christ. Some think this is a diminutive form of Christos, meaning "little Christ." Irregardless Christianos connects a believer with his Lord. In a real sense a Christian means bearing the name of Christ. There are some parallel constructions in the ancient language. Followers of Herod were known as "Herodians." Likewise those loyal to Caesar were known as "Caesarians." This appears to be the model on which the name "Christian" was formed (see following note from Anchor) (See also Christian) The Anchor Bible Dictionary writes that... Most scholars agree that the formation of this term is Latin in origin. Christianus (pl. Christiani) is a second declension masculine Latin noun found in Tacitus, Suetonius, and Pliny the Younger. A common practice of the 1st century for identifying adherents was to attach the termination -ianus (pl. -iani) to the name of the leader or master (e.g., Pompeiani, Augustiani, Ceasariani). Early Hellenistic practice paralleled this by attaching -ianos (pl. -ianoi) to the name of a leader or master (e.g., Herodianoi, Matt 22:16; Mark 3:6; 12:13; Joseph. Ant 14.15, 10). Hence, whether in Lat (Christianus) or in Gk (Christianos) the term is formed from Christ and indicates Christ’s adherents, those who belong to, or are devoted to, Christ. (Freedman, D. N. The Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday) In the earliest days of the church, “Christian” was a term of ridicule the pagans gave to the followers of Christ. Eventually, followers of Christ came to love and adopt this name. It is interesting to note the terms applied to believers prior to use of the term "Christian" - "Jews," "disciples," "believers," "the Lord's disciples," those "who belonged to the Way" (Acts 1:15; 2:44; 6:1; 9:1, 2). When the church was established in Antioch the term "Christian" began to be used. From this passage observe that "Christian" is equated with disciples, mathetes, which in fact is the most common term applied to believers in the New Testament! When he (Barnabas left Antioch to search for Saul) had found him (Saul), he brought him to Antioch. And it came about that for an entire year they met with the church, and taught considerable numbers; and the disciples were first called Christians in Antioch. (Acts 11:26).How far have we drifted from this Biblical definition of a "Christian"? If you have time, consider studying how Scripture defines a "disciple" in the Gospels and Acts (see below). It is interesting to note that "disciple" does not appear after the book of Acts. Mathetes in the Gospels and Acts - Mt 5:1; 26.8" class="scriptRef">8.21" class="scriptRef">8:21, 3" class="scriptRef">23" class="scriptRef">23" class="scriptRef">23; 10-Matt.9.38" class="scriptRef">9:10f, 14, 19" class="scriptRef">19" class="scriptRef">19, 37; 10:1, 6" class="scriptRef">16.24" class="scriptRef">24-Matt.10.42" class="scriptRef">24f, 12.50" class="scriptRef">42; 11:1f; 12:1f, 49; 13" class="scriptRef">13" class="scriptRef">13" class="scriptRef">13.10" class="scriptRef">13:10, 36" class="scriptRef">36; 14:12, 15, 19, 22, 26; 15:2, 12, 23, 32f, 36; 16:5, 13, 20-Matt.16.28" class="scriptRef">20f, 24; 17:6, 10, 13, 16, 19; 18:1; 19:10, 13, 23, 25; 20:17; 21:1, 6, 20; 22:16; 23:1; 24:1, 3; 26:1, 8, 17, 18, 19, 26, 35f, 40, 45, 56; 27:64; 28:7f, 13, 16; 5-Mark.2.28" class="scriptRef">Mk 2:15f, 18" class="scriptRef">18, 23; 3:7, 9; 4.34" class="scriptRef">4:34; 31" class="scriptRef">5:31; 6.1" class="scriptRef">6:1, 29, 35, 41, 45; 7:2, 5, 17; 8:1, 4, 6, 10, 27, 33f; 14" class="scriptRef">9:14, 18, 28, 31; 10:10, 13, 23f, 46; 11:1, 14; 12:43; 13:1; 14:12ff, 16, 32; 16:7; Lk 5:30, 33" class="scriptRef">33; 6:1, 13, 17, 20, 40" class="scriptRef">40; 7:11, 18" class="scriptRef">18; 8:9, 22" class="scriptRef">22" class="scriptRef">22; 9:14, 16, 18, 40, 43, 54; 10:23; 11:1; 12:1, 22; 14:26f, 33; 16:1; 17:1, 22; 18:15; 19:29, 37, 39" class="scriptRef">39; 45" class="scriptRef">20:45; 22:11, 39, 45; 35" class="scriptRef">Jn 1:35, 37; 2:2, 20.8" class="scriptRef">8.25" class="scriptRef">25" class="scriptRef">25" class="scriptRef">11f, 17, 22" class="scriptRef">22; 3:22, 25; 4" class="scriptRef">4:1f, 8" class="scriptRef">8, 27, 31, 33; 6:3, 8, 12" class="scriptRef">12" class="scriptRef">12, 16" class="scriptRef">16, 22, 24, 60f, 66; 7:3; 8:31; 9:2, 27f; 11:7f, 12, 54; 12:4, 16; 13:5, 38" class="scriptRef">22f, 35; 15:8; 16:17, 29; 18:1f, 15ff, 19, 25; 19:26f, 38; 20:2, 3, 4, 8, 10, 18, 19, 20, 25f, 30; 21:1f, 4, 7f, 12, 14, 20, 23f; Mathetes in Acts - Acts 6:1, 2, 7; 9.1" class="scriptRef">9:1, 10, 19, 25f, 38; 11:26, 29; 13:52; 14:20, 22, 28; 15:10; 16.1" class="scriptRef">16:1; 18:23, 27; 19:1, 9, 30" class="scriptRef">30; 20:1, 30; 21:4, 16 And Agrippa replied to Paul, "In a short time you will persuade me to become a Christian. (Acts 26:28) In our modern world, the world, most people who hear the term Christian consider it to be essentially the opposite of “pagan.” But the word carries the idea of “a Christ one, belonging to Christ.” Certainly it is a privilege to bear the name and to suffer for His name’s sake (see Acts 5:41). MacArthur explains... If anyone suffers as a Christian his suffering qualifies for Holy Spirit blessing. He should not feel ashamed (aischunō, “dishonored”), but rather because of this benediction of supernatural comfort he is to glorify God in this name (Christian). First-century believers referred to one another, such as “brethren” (Acts 1:15–16; 6:3; 9:30; 12:17; 15:13), “saints” (Acts 9:13; Rom. 8:27; 15:25; 1 Cor. 16:1), and those of “the Way” (Acts 9:2; 19:9, 23; 22.4" class="scriptRef">22:4; 24:14, 22) (Ed: I would add they were most frequently called "disciples" in the book of Acts!) Ironically, however, Christian was not a name first assumed by believers themselves; instead, because it was originally a derisive designation given them by the world, it was associated with hatred and persecution (cf. Acts 11:26; 26:28). It has become, and should remain, the dominant and beloved name by which believers are known—those who belong to Christ. (MacArthur, J. 1 Peter. Chicago: Moody Press) Vine has the following note.. Tacitus, writing near the end of the first century, says, “The vulgar call them Christians. The author or origin of this denomination, Christus, had, in the reign of Tiberius, been executed by the Procurator, Pontius Pilate” (Annals xv. 44). From the second century onward the term was accepted by believers as a title of honour. (Vine's Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words) TDNT writes that... Ignatius often uses Christianos for a believer; one must be this in reality and not in name only (Magnesians 4). (Kittel, G., Friedrich, G., & Bromiley, G. W. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Eerdmans) Pliny (Roman scholar, 23–79AD ) writes of punishment inflicted because of the “name itself” (i.e., “Are you a Christian?” ). Warren Wiersbe explains it this way... Roman law required each citizen to pledge his loyalty to the emperor. Once a year, the citizen would put a pinch of incense on the proper altar and say, “Caesar is Lord!” But the Christian confesses that “Jesus Christ is Lord!” (1Co 12:3.) Believers refused to bow before Caesar. Sometimes the Roman official would write the name of Christ on the ground or on a wall and ask the Christian to spit on it. If the Christian refused, he or she would be arrested, tried, and perhaps killed. By bearing the name of Christ (Christian), they were put to shame before their friends. But what a glorious name to bear! It is a name higher than any other. (Wiersbe, W. W. Wiersbe's Expository Outlines on the New Testament. Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books) The Dictionary of Christianity in America comments that "What the term intended to convey is uncertain, but the Greek papyri provide some help. There, a comparative form is kaisarianos, a slave or soldier of the divine Caesar; christianos then would signify a slave or soldier belonging to the divine Christ" (Dictionary of Christianity in America) Nelson's New Illustrated Bible Dictionary defines a Christian as The designation of the early followers of Christ as Christians was initiated by the non-Christian population of Antioch. Originally it may have been a term of derision. Eventually, however, Christians used it of themselves as a name of honor, not of shame. Prior to their adoption of the name, the Christians called themselves believers (Acts 5:14), brothers (Acts 6:3), or saints (Acts 9:13), names that also continued to be used. In modern times the name Christian has been somewhat emptied of its true meaning as a follower of Christ. To some today, Christian means little more than a European or American who is not Jewish, while others have sought to make its proper use the name of a particular denomination. However, its original meaning is a noble one, of which any follower of Christ can rightly be proud. (Youngblood, R. F., Bruce, F. F., Harrison, R. K., & Thomas Nelson Publishers. Nelson's New Illustrated Bible Dictionary ) Webster's Dictionary (modern version) somewhat "softens" the definition of a "Christian" as one who professes belief in the teachings of Jesus Christ. (Ed comment: One who professes might or might not be one who genuinely possesses Christ's life within them. See Mt 7:21-note, Mt 7:22, 23-note ) A. W. Tozer said: There is nothing so refreshing as to watch a new Christian before he has heard too many sermons and watched too many Christians. (Note: In other words, new Christians are often more Christlike than older ones) J. Wilbur Chapman said the following of Christian... "Anything that dims my vision of Christ, or takes away my taste for Bible study, or cramps my prayer life, or makes Christian work difficult, is wrong for me, and I must, as a Christian, turn away from it." J N Darby, founder of the Plymouth Brethren wrote: Remember that you are nothing and nobody except Christians, and on the day you cease to provide an available amount of communion for every recognized believer in the Lord Jesus, you will become sectarian, and merely add, by your meetings, to the disorder and ruin of Christendom. C. S Lewis summarized a Christian and his or her practice writing... Christianity, if false, is of no importance, and, if true, of infinite importance. The one thing it cannot be is moderately important. An anonymous writer said that... Faith makes a Christian. Life proves a Christian. Trial confirms a Christian. Death crowns a Christian. Another anonymous writer noted that The Christian life doesn't get easier; it gets better. The 1828 Webster version records a somewhat more biblical definition of a Christian is A believer in the religion of Christ", "A professor of his belief in the religion of Christ" "A real disciple of Christ; one who believes in the truth of the Christian religion and studies to follow the example and obey the precepts of Christ F. B. Meyer says this charge by Peter is true whether it means... the loss of business, reputation, and home; desertion by parents, children, and friends; misrepresentation, hatred and even death. LET HIM NOT FEEL ASHAMED: me aischunestho (3SPMM): (Isa 50:7; 54:4; Php 1:20; 2Ti 1:12; Heb 12:2,3) "And tho this world, with devils filled should threaten to undo us ; We will not fear, for God has willed His truth to triumph through us. The prince of darkness grim; We tremble not for him; His rage we can endure; for lo! his doom is sure; One little word shall fell him." Play A Mighty Fortress is our God Paul has this perspective writing from a jail cell... according to my earnest expectation and hope, that I shall not be put to shame in anything, but that with all boldness, Christ shall even now, as always, be exalted in my body, whether by life or by death. For to me, to live is Christ, and to die is gain. (See notes Philippians 1:20; 21) And again in his last letter, suffering in jail because of his proclamation of the gospel of Christ, Paul affirmed that... For this reason I also suffer these things, but I am not ashamed; for I know Whom (note not "What" - truth transforms and truth is a Person Christ Jesus) I have believed, and I am convinced that He is able to guard what I have entrusted to Him until that day. (see note 2 Timothy 1:12) Let (him) not be ashamed (153) (aischunomai from aíschos = shame. disfigurement, disgrace) (see study of related word epaischunomai) means to be put to shame, be made ashamed or have a feeling of fear or shame which prevents person from doing a thing. To be jmade to feel embarrassed (Lk 16:3). To be disillusioned or disappointed (Php 1:20). To be disgraced. Thayer - (1) To disfigure (as in Homer's Illiad 18, etc) (2) To dishonor (Lxx of Pr 29:15 - The rod and reproof give wisdom, But a child who gets his own way brings shame to his mother.) TDNT - The Linguistic Usage in the LXX. Unlike the aidos group, this group was in common use and is thus often found in the LXX. The sense is “to shame,” “put to shame” (God mostly as subject), “be shamed or ashamed” (personally rather than publicly). The main point of aischyne is not “feeling of shame” but “disgrace,” i.e., the shame brought by divine judgment, though sometimes with a stress on “being ashamed.” Aischunomai - 5x in 5v - Lk. 16:3; 2 Co. 10:8; Phil. 1:20; 1 Pet. 4:16; 1 Jn. 2:28 and is rendered in NAS as ashamed(1), feel ashamed(1), put to shame(2), shrink in shame(1). In Greek when a negative particle precedes the present imperative it can be rendered "Stop being ashamed", implying that some were falling into this trap. Wuest for example renders it... let him not continue to be ashamed. This statement must have reminded Peter of his own denial of Christ (Lk 22:54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62). The warning in Mk 8:38 is worth pondering. Not be ashamed is negative whereas glorify God is the positive (Spirit empowered) response. Both are important for a balanced witness. If we seek to glorify God, then we will not be ashamed of the name of Jesus Christ. Aischunomai - 5x in the NAS - Luke 16:3 "The manager said to himself, 'What shall I do, since my master is taking the management away from me? I am not strong enough to dig; I am ashamed to beg. 2 Corinthians 10:8 For even if I boast somewhat further about our authority, which the Lord gave for building you up and not for destroying you, I will not be put to shame, Philippians 1:20 according to my earnest expectation and hope, that I will not be put to shame in anything, but that with all boldness, Christ will even now, as always, be exalted in my body, whether by life or by death. 1 Peter 4:16 but if anyone suffers as a Christian, he is not to be ashamed, but is to glorify God in this name. 1 John 2:28 Now, little children, abide in Him, so that when He appears, we may have confidence and not shrink away from Him in shame at His coming. Aischunomai - 73 in the Lxx - 25" class="scriptRef">Gen 2:25; Jdg 3:25; 5:28; 1 Sam 13:4; 27:12; 2Sa 19:3; 2 Kgs 2:17; 1 Chr 19:6; 2 Chr 12:6; Ezra 8:22; 9:6; Job 19:3; 32:21; Ps 6:10; Ps 25:3; Ps 31:17; 35:4, 26; 69:6; 70:2f; Ps 71:13, 24" class="scriptRef">24; 83:17; Ps 86:17; 97:7; Ps 109:28; 119.46" class="scriptRef">Ps 119:46, 78, 80; Ps 129:5; Pr 1:22; 13:5; Pr 20:4; 22:26; Pr 28:21; 29:15, 25; Eccl 10:17; Isa 1:29; 20:5; 23:4; Is 24:9; 26:11; Is 29:22; 33:9; 41:11; Is 42:17; 44:9, 11; Is 45:16-17, 24; Is 49:23; 50:7; Is 65:13; 66:5; Jer 2:26; 8:9; Jer 12:13; 14:4; 20:11; Jer 22:22; 48:1, 39; 50:12; 51:51; Ezek 16:52, 63; 36:32; Hos 10:6; Joel 1:12; Zech 9:5 Here are few representative uses in the Septuagint... Gen 2:25 And the man and his wife were both naked and were not ashamed. Comment: Shame is associated with sin! We are ashamed Coram Deo (before God) and before each other. Thus the beauty of quick, complete, cleansing confession and repentance (1Jn 1:9). Jer 20:11 But the LORD is with me like a dread champion; Therefore my persecutors will stumble and not prevail. They will be utterly ashamed, because they have failed, With an everlasting disgrace that will not be forgotten. Comment: And dear saint suffering the the Name above all names, take courage, for eternity will soon vindicate you, for we too have a "dread Champion," Christ Jesus, Who triumphed over sin and death. Amen. Isa 42:17 They shall be turned back and be utterly put to shame, Who trust in idols, Who say to molten images, “You are our gods.” Isa 44:9 Those who fashion a graven image are all of them futile, and their precious things are of no profit; even their own witnesses fail to see or know, so that they will be put to shame. Comment: The futility of idolatry! Ps 6:10 All my enemies shall be ashamed and greatly dismayed; They shall turn back, they shall suddenly be ashamed. Ps 25:3 Indeed, none of those who wait for Thee will be ashamed; Those who deal treacherously without cause will be ashamed. Comment: The corollary is "Don't take your own revenge. Wait for God to make them ashamed!" Ps 31:1 For the choir director. A Psalm of David. In Thee, O LORD, I have taken refuge; Let me never be ashamed; In Thy righteousness deliver me. Ps 119:46 I will also speak of Thy testimonies before kings, and shall not be ashamed. Ps 119:80 May my heart be blameless in Thy statutes, that I may not be ashamed. Comment: A great prayer! Jesus set the example for us so that as we run this race of the Christian life with endurance, we must constantly be... fixing (turning one's eyes away from other things near and fixing them on something, in this case Jesus) our eyes on Jesus, the Author and Perfecter of faith, who for the joy set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God. For ("For" introduces the reason for the exhortation to look unto Jesus. Look unto him, for a comparison with Him will show you how much more He had to endure than you have) consider (aorist imperative) Him who has endured such hostility by sinners against Himself, so that you may not grow weary and lose heart. (He 12:2-notes,Heb 12:3-note) David prayed to not be ashamed... To Thee, O LORD, I lift up my soul. O my God, in Thee I trust, do not let me be ashamed (kataischuno). Do not let my enemies exult over me. (Ps 25:1, 2-note) Comment: Another good prayer to pray John Piper writes This is amazing. The mark of a Christian is that he experiences deeper and greater joy in being dishonored with Christ than he does in being honored by men. Peter knew what he was talking about. He had experienced it. According to Acts 5:41, after being beaten with the other apostles, he "left the presence of the council, rejoicing that they were counted worthy to suffer dishonor for the name (of Jesus)". If you admire and love someone tremendously, and you get lumped together with them and treated the same way, it is a great honor. There may be great pain as well. The deepest joys of life often grow in the soil of pain. (The Holy Spirit Will Help You Die) The hymn writer, Isaac Watts in Am I a Soldier of the Cross?, expressed the essence of Peter's exhortation, with the soul examining question... Am I a soldier of the cross, A follower of the Lamb, And shall I fear to own His cause, Or blush to speak His Name? Must I be carried to the skies On flowery beds of ease, While others fought to win the prize, And sailed through bloody seas? Are there no foes for me to face? Must I not stem the flood? Is this vile world a friend to grace, To help me on to God? Sure I must fight if I would reign; Increase my courage, Lord. I’ll bear the toil, endure the pain, Supported by Thy Word. Thy saints in all this glorious war Shall conquer, though they die; They see the triumph from afar, By faith’s discerning eye. When that illustrious day shall rise, And all Thy armies shine In robes of victory through the skies, The glory shall be Thine. Adoniram Judson was a member of the fellowship of the unashamed as testified by the following... Adoniram Judson, the renowned missionary to Burma, endured untold hardships trying to reach the lost for Christ. For 7 heartbreaking years he suffered hunger and privation. During this time he was thrown into Ava Prison, and for 17 months was subjected to almost incredible mistreatment. As a result, for the rest of his life he carried the ugly marks made by the chains and iron shackles which had cruelly bound him. Undaunted, upon his release he asked for permission to enter another province where he might resume preaching the Gospel. The godless ruler indignantly denied his request, saying, “My people are not fools enough to listen to anything a missionary might SAY, but I fear they might be impressed by your SCARS and turn to your religion!” (see biographical sketch) D L Moody rightly declared that A holy life will make the deepest impression. Lighthouses blow no horns, they just shine. BUT IN THAT NAME LET HIM GLORIFY GOD: doxazeto (3SPAM) de ton theon en to onomati touto: (Isa 24:15; Ro 5:2, 3, 4, 5; Php 1:29; Jas 1:2, 3, 4) Phillips: If he suffers as a Christian he has nothing to be ashamed of and may glorify God in Christ's name. ESV 1 Peter 4:16 Yet if anyone suffers as a Christian, let him not be ashamed, but let him glorify God in that name. NLT: But it is no shame to suffer for being a Christian. Praise God for the privilege of being called by his wonderful name! NET 1 Peter 4:16 But if you suffer as a Christian, do not be ashamed, but glorify God that you bear such a name. CSB 1 Peter 4:16 But if anyone suffers as a Christian, he should not be ashamed, but should glorify God with that name. NAB 1 Peter 4:16 But whoever is made to suffer as a Christian should not be ashamed but glorify God because of the name. NJB 1 Peter 4:16 but if any one of you should suffer for being a Christian, then there must be no shame but thanksgiving to God for bearing this name.

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