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Greed (4124) (pleonexia from pleíon = more + écho = have) means literally to have more and describes a strong desire to acquire more and more material possessions, especially that which is forbidden. It is a desire to have more irrespective of one's need and is always used in bad sense. It describes an insatiable selfishness. See study of related word: Love of money (5365) philarguria (This note includes Bishop Trench's lengthy comparison of these two Greek words) John Eadie writes that pleonexia... denotes avaricious greed. Luke 12:15; Ro 1:29-note; 2Co 9:5. And it is joined to these preceding words, as it springs from the same selfishness, and is but a different form of development from the same unholy root. It is a dreadful scourge—saeva cupido, as the Latin satirist names it. More and more yet, as the word denotes; more may be possessed, but more is still desired, without limit or termination...It is greed, avarice, unconquerable love of appropriation, morbid lust of acquisition, carrying in itself a violation of almost every precept of the Decalogue (10 Commandments). (John Eadie, D., LL.D. The Epistle of St Paul to the Ephesians) Pleonexia -10 times in the NT translated as covetousness, 1; deeds of coveting, 1; greed, 7; greediness, 1. There are 5 uses in the Septuagint (LXX) (Ps. 119:36-note; Is 28:8; Jer. 22:17; Ezek. 22:27; Hab. 2:9) Contentment is the opposite of covetousness. Attacking covetousness lays the ax to a root cause of sin because pleonexia is the root of the other sins listed in this verse. When contentment replaces covetousness, the latter cannot give rise to the process that culminates in an act of sin. Greed is what you desire and what you desire more of becomes your ''god'' and you end up serving (latreuo) that ''god.'' In God's sight, greed is worshipping the god mammon, and "you cannot serve God and mammon" (see note Matthew 6:24) Greed or coveting originates from within out of the heart of men" and "defiles (profane, cause to become unclean, polluted, unholy) the man (Mk 7:21-23) It is not surprising that Jesus warned beware (gaze with wide-open eyes, stare at, discern clearly) and be on your guard (be on guard from being lost or perishing, protect from greed and so to keep in safe) against every form of greed for not even when one has an abundance does his life consist of his possessions (Luke 12:15). When men do not see fit to acknowledge God any longer, God (gives) them over to a depraved mind, to do those things which are not proper, being (completely) filled (totally permeated and controlled by) with all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malice; they are gossips (see note Romans 1:28, 1:29) Not surprisingly Paul exhorts believers to not let immorality or any impurity or greed even be named among you, as is proper among saints. (see notes Ephesians 5:3) Teachers and leaders should never come "with a pretext for greed." (see note 1Thessalonians 2:5) for there would be teachers who "in their greed ...exploit (their hearers) with false (Gk = plastos [cf "plastic"] = Artificial, feigned, false, hypocritical, deceitful) words; (but) their judgment from long ago is not idle, and their destruction is not asleep." (see note 2 Peter 2:3) Peter went on to describe these teachers as men who have "eyes full (replete, stuffed) of adultery and that never cease (unable to desist, cannot be restrained) from sin, enticing (catching by using bait; entrapping, deluding, alluring, beguiling) unstable (unsettled, unsteady) souls, having a heart trained (gymnazo - controlled by through discipline in this case not good but) in greed, accursed children." (see note 2 Peter 2:14) William Barclay writes that the Greeks defined pleonexia as “arrogant greediness,” as “the accursed love of possessing,” as “the unlawful desire for the things which belong to others.” It has been defined as the spirit in which a man is always ready to sacrifice his neighbour to his own desires. Pleonexia is the irresistible desire to have what we have no right to possess. It might issue in the theft of material things; it might issue in the spirit which tramples on other people to get its own way; it might issue in sexual sin....(pleonexia) is, therefore, a sin with a very wide range. If it is the desire for money, it leads to theft. If it is the desire for prestige, it leads to evil ambition. If it is the desire for power, it leads to sadistic tyranny. If it is the desire for a person, it leads to sexual sin (Barclay, W: The Daily Study Bible Series. The Westminster Press or Logos) Here are all 10 NT uses of pleonexia... Mark 7:21 (see above) Luke 12:15 And He said to them, "Beware, and be on your guard against every form of greed; for not even when one has an abundance does his life consist of his possessions." Romans 1:29 (note) (see above) 2 Corinthians 9:5 So I thought it necessary to urge the brethren that they would go on ahead to you and arrange beforehand your previously promised bountiful gift, that the same might be ready as a bountiful gift, and not affected by covetousness. Ephesians 4:19 (note) and they, having become callous, have given themselves over to sensuality, for the practice of every kind of impurity with greediness. Ephesians 5:3 (note) But do not let immorality or any impurity or greed even be named among you, as is proper among saints; Colossians 3:5 Therefore consider the members of your earthly body as dead to immorality, impurity, passion, evil desire, and greed, which amounts to idolatry. 1Thessalonians 2:5 (note) For we never came with flattering speech, as you know, nor with a pretext for greed-- God is witness-- 2 Peter 2:3 (note) and in their greed they will exploit you with false words; their judgment from long ago is not idle, and their destruction is not asleep. 2 Peter 2:14 (note) having eyes full of adultery and that never cease from sin, enticing unstable souls, having a heart trained in greed, accursed children; Torrey's Topic Covetousness (Greed) Comes from the heart -Mark 7:21, 22,23, Mt 15:17, 18, 19, 20 Engrosses the heart -Ezekiel 33:31; 2 Peter 2:14 Is idolatry -Ephesians 5:5; Colossians 3:5 Is the root of all evil -1 Timothy 6:10 Is never satisfied -Ecclesiastes 5:10; Habakkuk 2:5 Is vanity -Psalms 39:6-note; Ecclesiastes 4:8 IS INCONSISTENT In saints -Ephesians 5:3; Hebrews 13:5 Specially in ministers -1 Timothy 3:3 LEADS TO Adultery (coveting another's wife Ex 20:17, 14) - 2Sa 12:1,2, 3, 4, 5 Injustice and oppression -Proverbs 28:20; Micah 2:2 Foolish and hurtful lusts -1 Timothy 6:9 Departure from the faith -1 Timothy 6:10 Lying -2 Kings 5:22, 23, 24, 25 Murder -Proverbs 1:18,19; Ezekiel 22:12 Theft -Joshua 7:21 Poverty -Proverbs 28:22 Misery -1 Timothy 6:10 Domestic affliction -Proverbs 15:27 Abhorred by God -Psalms 10:3-note Forbidden -Exodus 20:17 A characteristic of the wicked -Romans 1:29 A characteristic of the slothful -Proverbs 21:26 Commended by the wicked alone -Psalms 10:3-note Hated by saints -Exodus 18:21; Acts 20:33 To be mortified by saints -Colossians 3:5 Woe denounced against -Isaiah 5:8; Habakkuk 2:9 Punishment of -Job 20:15; Isaiah 57:17; Jeremiah 22:17-19; Micah 2:2,3 Excludes from heaven -1 Corinthians 6:10; Ephesians 5:5 Beware of -Luke 12:15 Avoid those guilty of -1 Corinthians 5:11 Pray against -Psalms 119:36-note Reward of those who hate -Proverbs 28:16 Shall abound in the last days -2 Timothy 3:2; 2 Peter 2:1, 2, 3 EXEMPLIFIED Eve, in desiring the forbidden fruit, Ge 3:6. Lot, in choosing the plain of the Jordan, 13.10-Gen.13.11" class="scriptRef">Ge 13:10, 11, 13. Laban -Genesis 31:41 Laban, in giving Rebekah to be Isaac's wife, Ge 24:29-51; Laban deceiving Jacob when he served him 7 yrs for Rachel, Ge. 29:15-30; Laban deceiving Jacob in wages, Gen. 31:7, 15, 41, 42. Jacob defrauding Esau of his father's blessing, Ge 27:6-29 Jacob defrauding Laban of his flocks and herds, Ge 30:35-43 Jacob buying Esau's birthright, Ge 25:31. Balaam in loving the wages of unrighteousness, 2Pe 2:15 with Nu 22. Achan -Joshua 7:21 Eli’s sons -1 Samuel 2:12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 Samuel’s sons -1Samuel 8:3 Saul -1Samuel 15:8, 9,19 David, of Bath-sheba, 2Sa 11:1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Ahab -1 Kings 21:2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 Gehazi -2 Kings 5:20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 Nobles of the Jews -Nehemiah 5:7; Isaiah 1:23 Jewish people -Isaiah 56:11; Jeremiah 6:13 Jews, in exacting usury of their brethren, Neh. 5:1, 2, 3, 4,5,6,7, 8, 9, 10, 11; Jews, in keeping back the portion of the Levites, Neh. 13:10; Jews, in building fine houses while the house of the Lord lay waste, Hag. 1:4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Jews, in following Jesus for the loaves and fishes, John 6:26. Babylon -Jeremiah 51:13 Money changers in the temple, Mt. 21:12, 13; Lk 19:45, 46; Jn 2:14, 15, 16. Young man -Matthew 19:16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 The rich fool, Luke 12:15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21. Judas -Mt. 26:14, 15, 16; Mark 14:10, 11; Lk 22:3, 4, 5, 6; Jn 12:6. The unjust steward, Luke 16:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Pharisees -Luke 16:14 Ananias and Sapphira -Acts 5:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Simon Magus, in trying to buy gift of Holy Spirit, Acts 8:18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 The sorceress filing complaint against Paul and Silas, Acts 16:19 Demetrius raising a riot against Paul and Silas, Acts 19:24, 27. Felix in hoping for a bribe from Paul, -Acts 24:26 Demas, in forsaking Paul for love of the world, 2 Ti 4:10. Balaam -2 Peter 2:15; Jude 1:11 Naves General Cross References on Greed (Some Repetition with above). Ex. 18:21; 17" class="scriptRef">Ex. 20:17 5.21" class="scriptRef">Deut. 5:21. Neh. 5:7; Job 20:15; 4-Job.31.25" class="scriptRef">Job 31:24, 25, 28; Ps 10:3; 119:36; Pr. 1:19; 11:24, 26; 15:27; 21:25, 26; 22:16; 23:4, 5; 30:8, 9; Eccl 1:2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8; 4:7, 8; 5:10, 11; Is 1:23; 5:8; 56:11; 57:17; Je 6:13; 8:10; 17:11; 22:17; 51:13; Ezek 22:12, 13; 33:31; Ho 4:18;10:1; Mic. 2:2; 3:11; 7:3; Hab 1:15, 16; 2:5, 6, 7, 8, 9; Hag 1:6; Mal 1:10; Mt 6:19, 20, 21, 24, 25, 31, 32,33; 13:22 Mark 4:19; Luke 7:14. Mt 16:26; 19:23, 24; Lk 18:24, 25. Mt 22:5, Mt 22:1-14.; Mark 7:21, 22, 23; Lk 12:15, 12:16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21; Lk 12:33, 34 Mt. 6:21. Lk 14:18, Lk 14:16-24.; Jn 6:26, 27; Ro 1:29; Ro 13:9; 1Cor. 5:11; Ep 5:3, 5 1Co 6:10. Col 3:2, 5, 6; Phil. 3:18, 19; 1Th. 2:5; 1Ti 3:2, 3; 6:5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,11, 17; 2Ti 3:2; Titus 1:7; Heb 13:5; James 4:2,4, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17; 1Pe 5:2; 2Pe 2:3, 14, 15,16.; 1Jn 2:15, 16,17; Jude 11

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