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Malice (2549) (kakia) refers to the quality of wickedness and thus in a moral sense means depravity, vice or baseness (James 1:21, 1Peter 2:16, Acts 8:22). It is the opposite of arete (note) and all virtue and therefore lacks social value. It denotes a vicious disposition, evilness, ill-will, spitefulness. John Eadie writes that kakia is a generic term that seems to signify "badhardiness" and is the root of all the previous vices. In reference to behavior kakia conveys the idea of a mean-spirited or vicious attitude or disposition as indicated by words such as malice, ill-will, hatefulness, and dislike. It is an attitude of wickedness as an evil habit of one's mind. Kakia is used in NT to describe the wickedness which comes from within a person. Malice describes a vicious intention and expresses the desire to hurt another and rejoices in it! Kakia is used 100 times in the Septuagint (LXX) (Ge 6:5; 31.52" class="scriptRef">31:52; Ex. 22:23; 23:2; 32.12" class="scriptRef">32:12, 14; 18" class="scriptRef">Deut. 31:18; Jdg. 20:34; 9" class="scriptRef">9" class="scriptRef">1Sa 6:9; 17" class="scriptRef">12:17, 19, 20, 25; 20:7, 9, 33; 23:9; 24:11; 25:17, 28, 39" class="scriptRef">39; 29:6, 7; 2Sa 3:25, 39; 13:16; 15.14" class="scriptRef">15:14; 16:8; 24:16; 1Ki 1:52; 2:44; 9:9; 11:25; 13:33; 16:7; 20:7; 21:29; 2Ki 6:33; 14:10; 1Chr 21:8, 15; 2Chr 7:22; 25:19; Esther 8:3; Job 17:5; 20:12; 22:5; Ps. 36:4; 50:19; 52:1, 3; 107:34; Prov. 1:16; 13:16; 14:18, 32; 16:30; 19:7, 9; 26:11; Eccl. 5:13; 7:3, 14, 15; 12:1; Is 29:20; Je 1:16; 2:19; 3:2; 4:14, 18; 6:7; 7:12; 8:6; 11:15, 17; 12:4; 15:7; 51:24; Lam. 1:22; Ezek 16:23, 37, 57; 20:43; 22:12; Ho 7:1, 2, 3; 9:15; 10:15; Joel 2:13; Amos 3:6; Jonah 1:2, 7, 8; 3:10; 4:2; Nahum 3:19; Zech. 7:10; 8:17) and 11 times in the NT (see below) and is translated: evil(3), malice(5), trouble(1), wickedness(2). Here are the NT uses of kakia... Matthew 6:34 (note) "Therefore do not be anxious for tomorrow; for tomorrow will care for itself. Each day has enough trouble of its own. Acts 8:22 "Therefore repent of this wickedness of yours, and pray the Lord that if possible, the intention of your heart may be forgiven you. Romans 1:29 (note) being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malice; they are gossips, 1 Corinthians 5:8 Let us therefore celebrate the feast, not with old leaven, nor with the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. 1 Corinthians 14:20 Brethren, do not be children in your thinking; yet in evil be babes, but in your thinking be mature. Ephesians 4:31 (note) Let all bitterness and wrath and anger and clamor and slander be put away from you, along with all malice. Colossians 3:8 (note) But now you also, put them all aside: anger, wrath, malice, slander, and abusive speech from your mouth. Titus 3:3 (note) For we also once were foolish ourselves, disobedient, deceived, enslaved to various lusts and pleasures, spending our life in malice and envy, hateful, hating one another. James 1:21 Therefore putting aside all filthiness and all that remains of wickedness, in humility receive the word implanted, which is able to save your souls. 1 Peter 2:1 (note) Therefore, putting aside all malice and all guile and hypocrisy and envy and all slander... 2:16 (note) Act as free men, and do not use your freedom as a covering for evil, but use it as bondslaves of God. Aristotle defines malice as “taking all things in the evil part” Trench says that kakia is that peculiar form of evil which manifests itself in a malignant interpretation of the actions of others, an attributing of them all to the worst motive Webster says that "malice" is a desire to cause pain, injury, or distress to another and implies a deep-seated often unexplainable desire to see another suffer or experience pain, injury, or distress! One Greek scholar terms malice “the vicious character generally.” Vincent writes that kakia In NT is a special form of vice, not viciousness in general, as Cicero, Tusc. iv. 15, who explains by “vitiositas, a viciousness which includes all vices.” Calvin, on Ephesians 4:32 (see note), defines as “a viciousness of mind opposed to humanity and fairness, and commonly styled malignity.” The homily ascribed to Clement of Rome, describes kakia as the forerunner of our sins (x)...(Kakia) is the word denoting a malevolent disposition toward one’s neighbor. Hence it is not a general term for moral evil, but a special form of vice. Malice is not only a moral deficiency but destroys fellowship. To varying degrees, the unsaved spend their life maliciously. In Romans Paul describes those who have refused to acknowledge God and are given over by God to a depraved mind as being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malice; they are gossips. (see note Romans 1:29). Envy (5355) (phthonos) describes pain felt and malignity conceived at the sight of excellence or happiness. It means not just wanting what another person has, but also resenting that person for having it. It is an attitude of ill-will that leads to division and strife and even murder. When we envy, we cannot bear to see the prosperity of others, because we ourselves feel continually wretched. The English word envy is interesting as it is derived from the Latin in = against and video = to look, “to look with ill-will,” etc., toward another, and obviously is an evil strongly condemned in both the Old Testament and the New Testament. To envy is to feel a grudging discontent aroused by the possessions, achievements, or qualities of another along with the desire to have for oneself something possessed by another. To envy another is to show spiteful malice and resentment over another’s advantage. To envy is to possess a discontented feeling that arises in one's selfish heart in view of the superiority of another, and being nearly tantamount to the expression of jealousy. The one who envies possesses a malignant passion that sees in another qualities that it covets, and can even degenerate into hatred for their possessor. When we feel envy towards others our basic desire is to degrade them, not so much because we aspires after elevation as because we delight in obscuring those who are more deserving. It follows that envying while seemingly just an "innocent" sin is in fact one of the most odious and detestable of all vices. Jealousy and envy are close in meaning, but nevertheless are expressive of distinct attitudes, for jealousy makes us fear to lose what we possess, while envy creates sorrow that others have what we do not have. In other words, we are jealous of our own possessions, but we are envious of another man’s possessions. Jealousy fears to lose what it has, while envy is pained at seeing another have it! Vine says that envy differs from jealousy in that the former desires merely to deprive another of what he has, whereas the latter desires as well to have the same, or a similar, thing for itself." On this account envy is said to be “as the rottenness of the bones (Pr 14:30). Thus Trench calls envy “the meaner sin” of the two. Although Paul is characterizing those without Christ, believers are not immune to this sin which especially sad in the body of Christ, where the envying party is resentful of the spiritual accomplishments freely and graciously bestowed upon another brother or sister in Christ. Instead we should rejoice with them, but ultimately we can only do this when we are walking by the Spirit. Spurgeon observes... How often, if one Christian brother does a little more than his fellow-workers, they begin to find fault with him; and if one is blessed with greater success than others are, how frequently that success is disparaged and spoken of slightingly! This spirit of envy is, more or less, in us all and though, perhaps we are not exhibiting it just now, it only needs a suitable opportunity for its display, and it would be manifested. No man here has any idea of how bad he really is. You do not know how good the grace of God can make you, nor how bad you are by nature, nor how bad you might become if that nature were left to itself. The writer of Proverbs warns of the powerful and corrupting aspects on the one who envies... A sound heart is the life of the flesh: but envy (Hebrew = qin'ah = expresses a very strong emotion whereby some quality or possession of the object is desired by the subject) the rottenness (pictures decay) of the bones. (Pr 14:30, KJV). Comment: Matthew Henry writes "A fretful, envious, discontented spirit, is its own punishment; it consumes the flesh, preys upon the animal spirits, makes the countenance pale, and is the rottenness of the bones. Those that see the prosperity of others and are grieved, let them gnash with their teeth and melt away, Ps. 112:10. Rumpatur, quisquis rumpitur invidia. Whoever bursts for envy, let him burst.) Wrath is cruel, and anger is outrageous; but who is able to stand before envy? (Pr 27:4, KJV) Comment: We probably all need to read this verse again. What is the implication? What is even worse than wrath and anger? Envy! Matthew Henry comments on the second part of Proverbs 27:4 noting that "rooted malice, which is as much worse than the former as coals of juniper are worse than a fire of thorns. Wrath (it is true) is cruel, and does many a barbarous thing, and anger is outrageous; but a secret enmity at the person of another, an envy at his prosperity, and a desire of revenge for some injury or affront, are much more mischievous. One may avoid a sudden heat, as David escaped Saul's javelin, but when it grows, as Saul's did, to a settled envy, there is no standing before it; it will pursue; it will overtake. He that grieves at the good of another will be still contriving to do him hurt, and will keep his anger for ever." I don't think I fully understood the danger of envying!) One also recalls the detrimental effect of envy (and jealousy) in the lives of Joseph's brothers when he was shown favor (see Ge 37:12-36, Acts 7:9) and Saul's animosity toward David for the favor he was shown by God (cp 1 Samuel 18, et al). And notice that ultimately envy if unchecked (and only the Spirit can check envy) will lead to gradual corruption of one's soul and to a destructive, remorse filled way of life as indicated by Paul in Romans 1... And just as they did not see fit to acknowledge God any longer, God gave them over to a depraved mind, to do those things which are not proper, 29 being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malice; they are gossips, 30 slanderers, haters of God, insolent, arrogant, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents, 31 without understanding, untrustworthy, unloving, unmerciful; 32 and, although they know the ordinance of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of death, they not only do the same, but also give hearty approval to those who practice them. (See notes Romans 1:28; 29; 30; 31; 32) The lost world sees recognizes the danger of envy as shown in these quotes... Nothing sharpens sight like envy —Thomas Fuller Our envy always lasts much longer than the happiness of those we envy—Duc de la Rochefoucauld Even success softens not the heart of the envious —Pindar Here are the 9 uses of phthonos in the NT... Matthew 27:18 For he knew that because of envy they had delivered Him up. Mark 15:10 For he was aware that the chief priests had delivered Him up because of envy. (Comment: Notice that envy does not necessarily stop with an attitude but leads to action, in this case taking Jesus to the Cross! Beware if you have a spirit of envy, beloved. It is a corrupting, destructive influence on your soul.) Romans 1:29 (note) being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malice; they are gossips, Galatians 5:21 (note) envying, drunkenness, carousing, and things like these, of which I forewarn you just as I have forewarned you that those who practice such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God. (The verb form is found several verses later in Galatians 5:26 [note]) Philippians 1:15 (note) Some, to be sure, are preaching Christ even from envy and strife, but some also from good will; 1 Timothy 6:4 he is conceited and understands nothing; but he has a morbid interest in controversial questions and disputes about words, out of which arise envy, strife, abusive language, evil suspicions, Titus 3:3 (note) For we also once were foolish ourselves, disobedient, deceived, enslaved to various lusts and pleasures, spending our life in malice and envy, hateful, hating one another. James 4:5 Or do you think that the Scripture speaks to no purpose: "He jealously desires the Spirit which He has made to dwell in us"? 1 Peter 2:1 (note) Therefore, putting aside all malice and all guile and hypocrisy and envy and all slander (Comment: Take note - are you having trouble getting into the pure milk of the Word? Peter gives you a checklist with which you can do personal inventory. If you have any of these unholy traits, will grieve the Holy Spirit and you will blunt your hunger for God's holy word. Confess and repent and return to the Words of life, that by them you might grow in respect to salvation.) Envy is a sin that carries its own reward for it guarantees its own frustration and disappointment. By definition, the envious person cannot be satisfied with what he has and will always crave for more. His evil desires and pleasures are insatiable, and he cannot bear any other person having something that he himself does not have or having more of something than he himself has. Keeping up with the Jones is not a healthy thing for the condition of your soul, beloved! As lust is directed toward a specific object, so envy is directed toward a specific person. (cp Mt 27:18!) Barclay adds that there is the envy which is essentially a grudging thing. It looks at a fine person, and is not so much moved to aspire to that fineness, as to resent it. It is the most warped and twisted of human emotions.... a mean word. Euripides called it “the greatest of all diseases among men". The essence of it is that it does not describe the spirit which desires, nobly or ignobly, to have what someone else has; it describes the spirit which grudges the fact that the other person has these things at all. It does not so much want the things for itself; it merely wants to take them from the other. The Stoics defined it as “grief at someone else’s good.” Basil called it “grief at your neighbour’s good fortune.” It is the quality, not so much of the jealous, but rather of the embittered mind. (Barclay, W: The Daily Study Bible Series, Rev. ed. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press) F. B. Meyer held meetings in Northfield, Mass., and large crowds thronged to hear him. Then the great British Bible teacher G. Campbell Morgan came to Northfield and people were soon flocking to hear his brilliant expositions of scripture. Meyer confessed at first he was envious. He said, The only way I can conquer my feelings is to pray for Morgan daily, which I do. Dwight L. Moody once told the fable of an eagle who was envious of another that could fly better than he could. One day the bird saw a sportsman with a bow and arrow and said to him, “I wish you would bring down that eagle up there.” The man said he would if he had some feathers for his arrow. So the jealous eagle pulled one out of his wing. The arrow was shot, but it didn’t quite reach the rival bird because he was flying too high. The first eagle pulled out another feather, then another—until he had lost so many that he himself couldn’t fly. The archer took advantage of the situation, turned around, and killed the helpless bird. Moody made this application: if you are envious of others, the one you will hurt the most by your actions will be yourself. Matthew Henry comments that malice and envy are both roots of bitterness, whence many evils spring: evil thoughts and speeches, tongues set on fire of hell, detracting from and impairing the just and due praises of others. Their words are swords, wherewith they slay the good name and honour of their neighbour. This was the sin of Satan, and of Cain who was of that evil one, and slew his brother; for wherefore slew he him, but of this envy and malice, because his own works were evil, and his brother's righteous? These were some of the sins in which we lived in our natural state. HATEFUL, HATING ONE ANOTHER: stugetoi misountes (PAPMPN) allelous: (Ps 36:2; Rev 18:2) Hateful (4767) (stugeo) means to hate and is not found elsewhere in the NT. Hate is a natural fruit of envy, but it is also produced by many other things. It often has no rational base and simply is expressed for its own sake. It does not need a reason. Synonyms for hateful include - detestable, loathsome, despicable, odious, exciting great dislike, aversion or disgust. Clarke has a note that the Greek word for hateful derives from Styx, the infernal river by which the gods were wont to swear; and he who (according to the mythology of the heathens) violated this oath, was expelled from the assembly of the gods, and was deprived of his nectar and ambrosia for a year; hence the river was hateful to them beyond all things, and the verb stugeô, formed from this, signifies to shiver with horror. The Styx, which was natively good, came to be despised, exactly as do even the best things in life for those who are lost. Hating (3403) (miseo) means to have a strong aversion or to dislike strongly, with the implication of hostility. Miseo is in the present tense, indicating that hating is their way of life. It is the opposite of agapáo to love or philéo to be a friend to and is the equivalent to not loving or loveless, to slight. Hating is the active sense and natural result of being "hateful". Hiebert remarks that the fearful outcome (of the preceding actions) was the lovelessness of pagan society: "hateful, hating one another." Their detestable character and malignant disposition aroused mutual repulsion and antagonism, thus promoting and the dissolution of the bonds of human society. Clarke adds that because unsaved men so hated each other...self-interest alone could induce them to keep up civil society. This is the true state of all unregenerate men...the wretched state of fallen man. Hiebert sums up this section noting that In Romans 1 Paul has given an expansion of this brief picture. Not all the unsaved manifest these characteristics to the same extent but it is a picture of what depraved human nature naturally leads to. It is a depression picture. "Sin blunts the mind (foolish), perverts the heart and will (disobedient, going astray), and encourages the growth of all forms of selfish feeling (malice, envy, hate) Matthew Henry sums this last section up -- What contentions and quarrels flow from men's corruptions, such as were in the nature of those who by conversion are now good, but in their unconverted state made them ready to run like furious wild beasts one upon another! The consideration of its having been thus with us should moderate our spirits, and dispose us to be more equal and gentle, meek and tenderhearted, towards those who are such. This is the argument from their own past condition here described. This "unretouched picture" of unbelievers may not be beautiful, but it is certainly accurate! Some unregenerate persons do not display all of the traits mentioned here, but the works of the flesh (Gal 5:19–21) are always potentially present in their dispositions. Along with Romans 1:18–32; 3:9–18; Ephesians 2:1–3 and 4:17–19, this passage stands out as one of the most pathetic, penetrating descriptions in the NT of the human condition in all its sinfulness and misery. The root of the problem lies in our heart, for Jesus taught "That which proceeds out of the man, that is what defiles the man. For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed the evil thoughts, fornications, thefts, murders, adulteries, deeds of coveting and wickedness, as well as deceit, sensuality, envy, slander, pride and foolishness. All these evil things proceed from within and defile the man.” (Mk 7:20–23) This summary of man's depravity prepares us for the good news in the next section.

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