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Evil (4190) (poneros from poneo = work or toil, Robertson says the idea is that labor is an annoyance, bad, evil; Noun poneria derived from poneros) means evil including evil, malignant character, pernicious (see Webster 1828 definition below), that which is morally or socially worthless, wicked, base, bad, degenerate. Poneros denotes determined, aggressive, and fervent evil that actively opposes what is good. Poneros is not just bad in character (like kakos - see below), but bad in effect (injurious)! Poneros describes evil in active opposition to good. It means not only evil in its nature but viciously evil in its influence and actively harmful. Poneros used to describe Satan (ho poneros = "Evil one"), the god of this age, who is corrupting man and dragging him to destruction. This denotes someone who is not content in being corrupt themselves. They seek to corrupt others and draw them into the same destruction! Webster on evil - morally reprehensible, sinful, arising from actual or imputed (Ed: We all have Adam's "bad character" imputed!) bad character or conduct (Ed: Bad character always precedes bad conduct, the latter being the most visible manifestation of the former), causing discomfort or repulsion, offensive, causing harm, pernicious, deficient in quality in a physical sense and thus worthless (Mt 7:17-18). Webster's 1828 Edition on evil = 1. Having bad qualities of a natural kind; mischievous; having qualities which tend to injury, or to produce mischief. Some evil beast hath devoured him. Gen. 37. 2. Having bad qualities of a moral kind; wicked; corrupt; perverse; wrong; as evil thoughts; evil deeds; evil speaking; an evil generation. Scripture. 3. Unfortunate; unhappy; producing sorrow, distress, injury or calamity; as evil tidings; evil arrows; evil days. Webster's 1828 edition on pernicious = PERNI´´CIOUS, a. [L. perniciosus, from pernicies; perneco, to kill; per and nex, necis, death.] 1. Destructive; having the quality of killing, destroying or injuring; very injurious or mischievous. Food, drink or air may be pernicious to life or health. 2. Destructive; tending to injure or destroy. Evil examples are pernicious to morals. Intemperance is a pernicious vice. There are two Greek words for evil - poneros and kakos, the latter describing that which is inherently evil. Poneros on the other hand refers to the one who (or the thing that) is not only evil but is not content unless it carries out active evil, evil is actively harmful, hurtful and corrupting. It is therefore not surprising that poneros is one of the synonyms for "Satan" himself. The Greek ho poneros means "the (specific) evil" (translated "the evil one") and is used of the Devil (diabolos) in Mt 13:19, 38, Eph 6:16, 2Th 3:3, 1Jn 2:13-14, 3:12, 5:18-19. Indeed, the Devil is called the evil one, not only because he is intrinsically evil, but also because he is an evil doer, out to deceive and harm his victims. Some would add he is described in Mt 6:13 where Jesus instructs us to pray "deliver us from evil (literally "tou ponerou" ~ "the evil")." The NET Note on Mt 6:13-note says "The term ponerou may be understood as specific and personified, referring to the devil, or possibly as a general reference to evil. It is most likely personified since it is articular (tou ponerou). Cf. also "the evildoer" in Mt 5:39, which is the same construction." Vine - "Kakos may simply mean what is evil in itself; poneros carries with it the idea of what is pernicious and acts detrimentally to others, not only evil (passively bad), but evilly disposed (actively harmful), whether in matters of false doctrine, or temptations in the moral sphere. The young men who are addressed have so far proved faithful, and have not yielded themselves to the corrupting influences around them." Vine - akin to ponos, "labor, toil," denotes "evil that causes labor, pain, sorrow, malignant evil"; it is used (a) with the meaning bad, worthless, in the physical sense, Matthew 7:17,18 ; in the moral or ethical sense, "evil," wicked; of persons, e.g., Matthew 7:11 ; 45" class="scriptRef">Luke 6:45 ; Acts 17:5 ; 2 Thessalonians 3:2 ; 2Timothy 3:13 ; of "evil" spirits, e.g., Matthew 12:45 ; Luke 7:21 ; Acts 19:12,13,15,16 ; of a generation, Matthew 12:39,45; 16:4 ; Luke 11:29 ; of things, e.g., Matthew 5:11; 6:23; 20:15 ; Mark 7:22; Luke 11:34 ; John 3:19; 7:7 ; Acts 18:14 ; Galatians 1:4 ; Colossians 1:21 ; 1 Timothy 6:4 ; 2 Timothy 4:18; Hebrews 3:12; 10:22 ; James 2:4; 4:16 ; 1John 3:12 ; 2John 1:11 ; 3John 1:10 ; (b) with the meaning toilsome, painful, Ephesians 5:16, 6:13 ; Revelation 16:2 . Cp. poneria, "iniquity, wickedness."...the adjective poneros is used as a noun, (a) of Satan as the "evil" one, Matthew 5:37; 6:13; 13:19,38 ; Luke 11:4 (in some texts); John 17:15 ; Ephesians 6:16 ; 2Thessalonians 3:3 ; 1John 2:13,14; 3:12; 5:18,19 ; (b) of human beings, Matthew 5:45 ; (probably ver. 39); Mt 13:49; 22:10; Luke 6:35; 1Corinthians 5:13 ; (c) neuter, "evil (things)," Matthew 9:4; 12:35; Mark 7:23; Luke 3:19 ; "that which is evil," Luke 6:45 ; Romans 12:9 ; Acts 28:21 , "harm." (Evil, Evil-Doer - Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words) Liddell-Scott - toilsome, painful, grievous, Theogn., Ar. II. in bad case, in sorry plight, useless, good-for-nothing, Ar., Plat., etc.:-Adv., to be in bad case, Thuc. III. in moral sense, bad, worthless, knavish, Lat. pravus, improbus, Aesch., Eur.; rogue and son of rogues, Ar.; laboriously wicked, . 2. base, cowardly, Soph. Poneros is an adjective that modifies a wide variety of subjects in the NT including (but not inclusive)... Some of the the scribes and Pharisees, evil demonic spirits, evil eye which fills the whole body with great darkness (it's an eye that actively works evil) evil treasure in the heart, bad fruit, evil and adulterous generation craving a sign, tares of the evil one, evil thoughts (out of heart), deliverance from this present evil age, days as evil, call to resist in the evil day, an evil conscience, evil motives, Cain as of the evil one. Friberg - ; (1) adjectivally; (a) as what is physically disadvantageous = bad, harmful, evil, painful (Eph 5.16; Rev 16.2); (b) of persons and things, as of little worth to anyone = useless, unprofitable, unserviceable (Mt 7.18; 18.32; perhaps Mt 6.23 and Lk 11.34); (c) in a moral sense of persons and things characterized by ill will = evil, wicked, malicious (Mt 12.35; probably Mt 6.23 and Lk 11.34); (2) substantivally; (a) of persons = evildoer, wicked person, bad person (Mt 13.49); (b) as a term for the devil = the evil or wicked one (Mt 13.19) Poneros - 78x in 72v - NAS = bad(5), crimes(1), envious(1), envy*(1), evil(50), evil one(5), evil things(1), malignant(1), more evil(1), more wicked(1), vicious(1), wicked(6), wicked man(1), wicked things(1), worthless(1). Matthew 5:11-note "Blessed are you when people insult you and persecute you, and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of Me. 37-note "But let your statement be, 'Yes, yes ' or 'No, no'; anything beyond these is of evil. 39-note "But I say to you, do not resist an evil person; but whoever slaps you on your right cheek, turn the other to him also. 45-note so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven; for He causes His sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. Matthew 6:13-note (see Mt 6:12)'And do not lead us into temptation, but deliver us from evil. For Yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever. Amen.' 23-note "But if your eye is bad (eye evil), your whole body will be full of darkness. If then the light that is in you is darkness, how great is the darkness! MacArthur - These verses expand on the previous three, and the eye becomes an illustration of the heart. The lamp, or lens, of the body is the eye, through which all light comes to us. It is the only channel of light we possess, and therefore our only means of vision. The heart is the eye of the soul, through which the illumination of every spiritual experience shines. It is through our hearts that God’s truth, love, peace, and every other spiritual blessing comes to us. When our hearts, our spiritual eyes, are clear, then our whole body will be full of light. Haplous (clear) can also mean single, as it is translated in the King James Version. An eye that is clear represents a heart that has single-minded devotion. Bishop John Charles Ryle said, “Singleness of purpose is one great secret of spiritual prosperity” (Expository Thoughts on the Gospels: St. Matthew [London: James Clarke, 1965], p. 56). Words that are closely related to haplous mean “liberality” (Ro 12:8; 2 Cor. 9:11) and “generously” (James 1:5). The implication in the present verse is that if our heart, represented by the eye, is generous (clear), our whole spiritual life will be flooded with spiritual understanding, or light. If our eye is bad, however, if it is diseased or damaged, no light can enter, and the whole body will be full of darkness. If our hearts are encumbered with material concerns they become “blind” and insensitive to spiritual concerns. The eye is like a window which, when clear, allows light to shine through, but, when dirty, or bad, prevents light from entering. Ponēros (bad) usually means evil, as it is translated here in the King James Version. EVIL EYE In the Septuagint (Lxx) (Greek Old Testament) poneros is often used in translating the Hebrew expression “evil eye," (Ed: See Mk 7:22 below where "envy" is literally "evil eye") a Jewish colloquialism that means grudging, or stingy (see Deut. 15:9, “hostile”; Pr. 23:6, “selfish”). “A man with an evil eye,” for example, is one who “hastens after wealth” (Pr. 28:22). The eye that is bad is the heart that is selfishly indulgent. The person who is materialistic and greedy is spiritually blind. Because he has no way of recognizing true light, he thinks he has light when he does not. What is thought to be light is therefore really darkness, and because of the self-deception, how great is the darkness! The principle is simple and sobering: the way we look at and use our money is a sure barometer of our spiritual condition. {MacArthur New Testament Commentary} Matthew 7:11-note "If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father who is in heaven give what is good to those who ask Him! 17-note "So every good tree bears good fruit, but the bad tree bears bad fruit. 18-note "A good tree cannot produce bad fruit, nor can a bad tree produce good fruit. Matthew 9:4 And Jesus knowing their thoughts said, "Why are you thinking evil in your hearts? Matthew 12:34 "You brood of vipers, how can you, being evil, speak what is good? For the mouth speaks out of that which fills the heart. 35 "The good man brings out of his good treasure what is good; and the evil man brings out of his evil treasure what is evil. 39 But He answered and said to them, "An evil and adulterous generation craves for a sign; and yet no sign will be given to it but the sign of Jonah the prophet; 45 "Then it goes and takes along with it seven other spirits more wicked than itself, and they go in and live there; and the last state of that man becomes worse than the first. That is the way it will also be with this evil generation." Matthew 13:19 "When anyone hears the word of the kingdom and does not understand it, the evil one comes and snatches away what has been sown in his heart. This is the one on whom seed was sown beside the road. 38 and the field is the world; and as for the good seed, these are the sons of the kingdom; and the tares are the sons of the evil one; 49 "So it will be at the end of the age; the angels will come forth and take out the wicked from among the righteous, Matthew 15:19 "For out of the heart come evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, slanders. Matthew 16:4 "An evil and adulterous generation seeks after a sign; and a sign will not be given it, except the sign of Jonah." And He left them and went away. Matthew 18:32 "Then summoning him, his lord said to him, 'You wicked slave, I forgave you all that debt because you pleaded with me. Matthew 20:15 'Is it not lawful for me to do what I wish with what is my own? Or is your eye envious (literally your "Eye evil") because I am generous?' Matthew 22:10 "Those slaves went out into the streets and gathered together all they found, both evil and good; and the wedding hall was filled with dinner guests. Matthew 25:26 "But his master answered and said to him, 'You wicked, lazy slave, you knew that I reap where I did not sow and gather where I scattered no seed. Mark 7:22 deeds of coveting and wickedness, as well as deceit, sensuality, envy (literally "an Evil eye" a Hebrew idiom = ophthalmos poneros), slander, pride and foolishness. 23 "All these evil things proceed from within and defile the man." Barclay - There follows evil deeds. In Greek there are two words for evil--kakos, which describes a thing which in itself is evil, and poneros, which describes a person or a thing which is actively evil. Poneria is the word used in Mk 7:22. The man who is poneros is the man in whose heart there is the desire to harm. He is, as Bengel said, "trained in every crime and completely equipped to inflict evil on any man." Jeremy Taylor defined this poneria as "aptness to do shrewd turns, to delight in mischiefs and tragedies; loving to trouble our neighbor, and to do him ill offices; crossness, perverseness and peevishness of action in our intercourse." Poneria not only corrupts the man who has it; it corrupts others too. Poneros--the Evil One--is the title of Satan. The worst of men, the man who is doing Satan's work, is the man who, being bad himself, makes others as bad as himself. (Mark 7-- William Barclay's Daily Study Bible) Barclay on the derivative noun poneria in Ro 1:29 - Villainy ("wickedness" = poneria). In Greek this word means more than badness. There is a kind of badness which, in the main, hurts only the person concerned. It is not essentially an outgoing badness. When it hurts others, as all badness must, the hurt is not deliberate. It may be thoughtlessly cruel, but it is not callously cruel. But the Greeks defined poneria as the desire of doing harm. It is the active, deliberate will to corrupt and to inflict injury. When the Greeks described a woman as poneria they meant that she deliberately seduced the innocent from their innocence. In Greek one of the commonest titles of Satan is ho poneros, the evil one, the one who deliberately attacks and aims to destroy the goodness of men. Poneros describes the man who is not only bad but wants to make everyone as bad as himself. Poneria is destructive badness. Luke 3:19 But when Herod the tetrarch was reprimanded by him because of Herodias, his brother's wife, and because of all the wicked things which Herod had done, Luke 6:22 "Blessed are you when men hate you, and ostracize you, and insult you, and scorn your name as evil, for the sake of the Son of Man. 35 "But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing in return; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for He Himself is kind to ungrateful and evil men. 45 "The good man out of the good treasure of his heart brings forth what is good; and the evil man out of the evil treasure brings forth what is evil; for his mouth speaks from that which fills his heart. Luke 7:21 At that very time He cured many people of diseases and afflictions and evil spirits; and He gave sight to many who were blind. Luke 8:2 and also some women who had been healed of evil spirits and sicknesses: Mary who was called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out, Luke 11:13 "If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask Him?" 26 "Then it goes and takes along seven other spirits more evil than itself, and they go in and live there; and the last state of that man becomes worse than the first." 29 As the crowds were increasing, He began to say, "This generation is a wicked generation; it seeks for a sign, and yet no sign will be given to it but the sign of Jonah. 34 "The eye is the lamp of your body; when your eye is clear, your whole body also is full of light; but when it is bad, your body also is full of darkness. Luke 19:22 "He said to him, 'By your own words I will judge you, you worthless slave. Did you know that I am an exacting man, taking up what I did not lay down and reaping what I did not sow? John 3:19 "This is the judgment, that the Light has come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the Light, for their deeds were evil. John 7:7 "The world cannot hate you, but it hates Me because I testify of it, that its deeds are evil. John 17:15 "I do not ask You to take them out of the world, but to keep them from the evil one. Acts 17:5 But the Jews, becoming jealous and taking along some wicked men from the market place, formed a mob and set the city in an uproar; and attacking the house of Jason, they were seeking to bring them out to the people. Acts 18:14 But when Paul was about to open his mouth, Gallio said to the Jews, "If it were a matter of wrong or of vicious crime, O Jews, it would be reasonable for me to put up with you; Acts 19:12 so that handkerchiefs or aprons were even carried from his body to the sick, and the diseases left them and the evil spirits went out. 13 But also some of the Jewish exorcists, who went from place to place, attempted to name over those who had the evil spirits the name of the Lord Jesus, saying, "I adjure you by Jesus whom Paul preaches." 15 And the evil spirit answered and said to them, "I recognize Jesus, and I know about Paul, but who are you?" 16 And the man, in whom was the evil spirit, leaped on them and subdued all of them and overpowered them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded. Acts 25:18 "When the accusers stood up, they began bringing charges against him not of such crimes as I was expecting, Acts 28:21 They said to him, "We have neither received letters from Judea concerning you, nor have any of the brethren come here and reported or spoken anything bad about you. Romans 12:9-note Let love be without hypocrisy. Abhor what is evil; cling to what is good. 1 Corinthians 5:13 But those who are outside, God judges. REMOVE THE WICKED MAN FROM AMONG YOURSELVES. Galatians 1:4-note who gave Himself for our sins so that He might rescue us from this present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father, Ephesians 5:16-note making the most of your time, because the days are evil. Ephesians 6:13-note Therefore, take up the full armor of God, so that you will be able to resist in the evil day, and having done everything, to stand firm. 16-note in addition to all, taking up the shield of faith with which you will be able to extinguish all the flaming arrows of the evil one. Colossians 1:21-note And although you were formerly alienated and hostile in mind, engaged in evil deeds, 1 Thessalonians 5:22-note abstain (present imperative calls for [1] continual dependence on the Holy Spirit's enabling power or dunamis; and [2] continual vigilance, because of James 1:14-15-note, 1Pet 5:8-note!!!) from every form of evil. Vine - poneros, cp. v. 1Th 5:15, where the Greek word is kakos. These have much in common, the former occurs of thoughts in Matthew 15:19, the latter in Mark 7:21; and so of speech in Matthew 5:11, and 1 Peter 3:10; of actions in 2 Timothy 4:18, and v. 15 above; of men in Matthew 18:32 and Mt 24:48. They are not always interchangeable, however, for kakos (which is put first where the two occur together as in 1Cor. 5:8; Rev. 16:2) = “base,” bad in character, while ponēros = “malignant,” bad in influence and effect. Thus kakos is the word of wider, ponēros the word of stronger, meaning. Ponēros alone is used of Satan, Matthew 5:37, et al., and of demons, Luke 7:21, et al. The expression “form of evil” may be understood in three ways: a, of that which seems evil but is not really so; it would thus = “let not your good be evil spoken of,” Romans 14:16, cp. 2 Corinthians 8:21. But the evil-disposed will see evil in anything, Titus 1:15, as in the case of the Lord Jesus, e.g., see Luke 7:34, et al.; therefore this meaning may be dismissed: b, of that which seems evil because it is evil, the meaning intended by margin “appearance”; the saints were to shun evil in whatever form it showed itself. This interpretation gives an adequate sense to the words: c, of every sort or kind of evil, a meaning common in contemporary Greek writings (the papyri, e.g., see notes on 1:3 and 4:18), and intended in the text, cp. 2 Timothy 2:19. This gives the best sense. A contrast is apparently intended between the simplicity of that which is of God, “the good,” and the complexity of that which is of the world, the flesh, and the Devil, “every form of evil.” Sound teaching, Titus 1:13; 2:1, and holy living, 2 Peter 3:11, are intimately associated, as the apostle’s words “holding faith and a good conscience,” 1 Timothy 1:19, cp. 1Ti 3:9, suggest. To give heed to that which cannot be approved when tested by the Scriptures, the sole repository of apostolic teaching, Acts 2:42; 2 Timothy 3:15, 16, is to submit to influences that must ultimately lower the tone of spiritual life and affect for evil the conduct of the believer. {Collected writings of W. E. Vine}, 2 Thessalonians 3:2 and that we will be rescued from perverse and evil men; for not all have faith. 3 But the Lord is faithful, and He will strengthen and protect you from the evil one. 1 Timothy 6:4 he is conceited and understands nothing; but he has a morbid interest in controversial questions and disputes about words, out of which arise envy, strife, abusive language, evil suspicions, 2 Timothy 3:13-note But evil men and impostors will proceed from bad to worse, deceiving and being deceived. 2 Timothy 4:18-note The Lord will rescue me from every evil deed, and will bring me safely to His heavenly kingdom; to Him be the glory forever and ever. Amen. Hebrews 3:12-note Take care, (Present imperative - See note on 1Th 5:22 for it applies here!!!) brethren, that there not be in any one of you an evil, unbelieving heart that falls away from the living God. Hebrews 10:22-note let us draw near with a sincere heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water. James 2:4 have you not made distinctions among yourselves, and become judges with evil motives? James 4:16 But as it is, you boast in your arrogance; all such boasting is evil. 1 John 2:13 I am writing to you, fathers, because you know Him who has been from the beginning. I am writing to you, young men, because you have overcome the evil one. I have written to you, children, because you know the Father. 13 I am writing to you, fathers, because you know Him who has been from the beginning. I am writing to you, young men, because you have overcome the evil one. I have written to you, children, because you know the Father. MacArthur - Because the word of God abides in those at this stage, they are strong in doctrinal truth (3-Eph.4.16" class="scriptRef">Eph. 4:13–16; 1Ti 4:6; 2Ti 3:16–17; Titus 2:1; cf. Ps. 119:99). As a result, they have already overcome the evil one. After all, Satan’s primary emphasis is not on tempting individuals to sin (cf. James 1:14), but on working through manifold false religious systems to deceive the world and lead most to damnation (2 Cor. 10:3–5; 11:13–15; Eph. 6:11–12; cf. 1Tim. 4:1–2; 1John 4:1, 3). The spiritual young men at this stage of maturity, however, are equipped through their understanding of Scripture to stand firm against his deceptive schemes (Eph. 6:11). Armed with the sound doctrine they have been taught, they are able to refute error and guard the truth....From its earliest chapters, the Bible shows that the Evil One (cf. 2:13, 14) and all who function in his kingdom (Eph. 2:2–3; Col. 1:13) have constantly opposed God’s plan (e.g., the fall [Gen. 3]; the flood [Gen. 6:1–13]; the tower of Babel [Gen. 11:1–9] {MacArthur New Testament Commentary} Vine - The Evil One is Satan, who is thus described five times in this epistle, here and in 1Jn 2:14; 3:12; 5:18, 19. The designation was evidently familiar to his readers. The word rendered “evil” is ponēros, and differs from the more frequent and general word, kakos, “bad,” in that, while kakos may simply mean what is evil in itself; ponēros carries with it the idea of what is pernicious and acts detrimentally to others, not only evil (passively bad), but evilly disposed (actively harmful), whether in matters of false doctrine, or temptations in the moral sphere. The young men who are addressed have so far proved faithful, and have not yielded themselves to the corrupting influences around them. {Collected writings of W. E. Vine} 1 John 3:12 (cf Ge 4:2-8) not as Cain, who was of the evil one and slew his brother. And for what reason did he slay him? Because his deeds were evil, and his brother's were righteous. MacArthur - That Cain was of the evil one means he belonged to the kingdom of darkness, as did the unbelieving Jews who, like Cain, hated true righteousness and sought to kill Jesus. He said to them, “You are of your father the devil, and you want to do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth because there is no truth in him” (John 8:44a). The word translated evil one (poneros) denotes determined, aggressive, and fervent evil that actively opposes what is good (cf. Matt. 4:3–10; 2 Cor. 2:11; 1 Peter 5:8). Its meaning extends beyond basic evil or corruption (kakos) to include a type of malignant sinfulness that pulls others down into ruin (cf. Matt. 13:19, 38–39a; 2 Cor. 4:4). {MacArthur New Testament Commentary} 1 John 5:18 We know that no one who is born of God sins; but He who was born of God keeps him, and the evil one does not touch him. 19 We know that we are of God, and that the whole world lies in the power of the evil one. 2 John 1:11 for the one who gives him a greeting participates in his evil deeds. 3 John 1:10 For this reason, if I come, I will call attention to his deeds which he does, unjustly accusing us with wicked words; and not satisfied with this, he himself does not receive the brethren, either, and he forbids those who desire to do so and puts them out of the church. Revelation 16:2-note So the first angel went and poured out his bowl on the earth; and it became a loathsome and malignant sore on the people who had the mark of the beast and who worshiped his image. Poneros - 321.6" class="scriptRef">67" class="scriptRef">7.17" class="scriptRef">17" class="scriptRef">17.7" class="scriptRef">7v in non-apocryphal Septuagint (Lxx) - 9" class="scriptRef">9" class="scriptRef">9" class="scriptRef">9" class="scriptRef">Gen 2:9, 17; 8.5" class="scriptRef">5" class="scriptRef">5" class="scriptRef">3:5, 22" class="scriptRef">22" class="scriptRef">22; 6:5; 8" class="scriptRef">8.16.25" class="scriptRef">25.21" class="scriptRef">21" class="scriptRef">8:21; 13.11" class="scriptRef">11" class="scriptRef">11.27" class="scriptRef">27.12" class="scriptRef">12" class="scriptRef">12" class="scriptRef">12" class="scriptRef">12.17" class="scriptRef">12:17; 13:13; 15" class="scriptRef">15.28" class="scriptRef">28.8" class="scriptRef">28:8; 24" class="scriptRef">24" class="scriptRef">31:24, 29; 34.30" class="scriptRef">34:30; 35" class="scriptRef">35.22" class="scriptRef">35:22; 37.2" class="scriptRef">37:2, 20" class="scriptRef">20" class="scriptRef">20, 33" class="scriptRef">33; 38:7, 11.10" class="scriptRef">10" class="scriptRef">10" class="scriptRef">10" class="scriptRef">10; 39:9; 19" class="scriptRef">19" class="scriptRef">19" class="scriptRef">41:19; 44:4f; 47:9; 50:17, 20; Ex 33:4; Lev 26:6; 27:10, 12, 14" class="scriptRef">14, 33; Num 11:1, 10; 13:19; 14:27, 35ff; 20:5; 24:13; 32:13; Deut 4:25; 6:22; 7:15; 18" class="scriptRef">9:18; 13:5, 11; 15:21; 17:1f, 7, 12; 19:19f; 21:21; 22:14, 19, 21f, 24; 23.9" class="scriptRef">23:9; 24:7; 28:20, 35, 59f; 31:29; Josh 23:15; Jdg 2:11; 3:7, 12; 4:1; 6:1; 9:23; 10:6; 13:1; 1 Sam 3:21; 8:6; 15:19; 16:14ff, 23; 18:8; 19:9; 25:3, 21; 30:22; 2Sam 3:39; 4:11; 11:25, 27; 12:9; 13:22; 14:17; 1 Kgs 5:4; 11:6; 12:24; 14:22; 15:26, 34; 16:19, 25, 30; 21:20, 25; 22:52; 2 Kgs 1:18; 2:19; 3:2; 4:41; 8:18, 27; 13:2, 11; 14:24; 15:9, 18, 24, 28; 17:2, 13, 17; 21:2, 6, 9, 11, 15f, 20; 23:32, 37; 24:9, 19; 1Chr 2:3; 21:7; 2Chr 7:14; 12:14; 21:6, 15, 19; 22:4; 29:6; 33:2, 6, 9, 22; 36:2, 5, 9, 12; Ezra 4:12; 9:13; Neh 2:2f, 10; 4:1, 7; 6:13; 9:28, 35; 13:8, 17; Esther7:6; Job 1:1, 8; 2:7; 12:6; 21:30; 34:17; 35:12; 37:16; Ps 10:15; 34:21; 35:12; 37:19; 41:1; 49:5; 51:4; 64:5; 78:49; 94:13; 97:10; 101:3; 109:20; 112:7; 119:101; 140:1; 144:10; Pr 3:15; 7:5; 8:13; 11:15; 20:8; 22:3; 24:20; Eccl 1:13; 2:17; 4:3, 8; 5:14, 16; 6:2; 8:3, 5, 11f; 9:3, 12; 10:13; 11:2; 12:14; Isa 1:4; 3:9, 11; 5:20; 7:5, 15; 9:17; 14:20; 25:4; 28:19; 30:4; 31:2; 32:7; 35:9; 53:9; 56:11; 65:12; 66:4; Jer 2:13; 3:5, 17; 7:30; 11:19; 12:14; 15:21; 16:12; 17:17f; 18:10ff; 23:2, 10, 14, 22; 24:2f, 8; 25:5; 26:3; 32:30; 35:15; 36:3, 7; 38:4; 44:29; 49:23; Ezek 5:17; 11:2; 13:22; 14:15, 21; 18:23; 34:25; 36:31; 38:10; Hos 3:1; 7:15; 12:1; Amos 5:13ff; Jonah 3:8, 10; Mic 2:3, 9; 3:2; Nah 1:11; Hab 1:13; Zech 1:4; Mal 2:17. Here is an OT use of poneros which effectively charted the course of Israel for almost 300 years -- we need to read and heed this truth about poneros! Judges 2:11 Then the sons of Israel did evil (Lxx = poneros) in the sight of the LORD and served the Baals Wayne Barber comments: They adopted for themselves an Independent lifestyle. It is very important in our understanding of covenant to realize that you can’t live independently any longer. Example of Wayne’s marriage covenant with his wife...he better live like he is in covenant with his wife. He had better act like he is in covenant with his wife. Wayne’s wife is very quiet but she carries a big stick. He has no right whatsoever now to live independently of his covenant relationship...Wayne and his wife live dependent on one another. As you study covenant, you will see this principle that there is no such thing as an independent lifestyle. (Eve wanted to live independent of God and God called it SIN! Anytime we live independent of God the result is SIN.) The problem with Israel was that they did evil in the sight of God=they stepped out of line. This fits with the whole theme of the book of Judges: ‘’Everyone did what was right in his own eyes.’’ (LIVING INDEPENDENT OF GOD) The result of this action God called ‘’EVIL’’. Let’s look at some of the words: EVIL: bad in contrast to good. The Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament, referred to as the Septuagint, translates EVIL with the Greek word ''poneros.'' Poneros-has several shades of meaning: 1. The effort: toilsome (a lot of sweat goes into evil conduct!), grievous and painful. 2. The intrinsic value of this evil: useless, worthless, of no good whatsoever. So you work hard all day...if you’re working at evil it’s worth nothing. 3. The effect: it always means that which is injurious and harmful to others. Judges 2:11 says the Israelites did evil... 1. they worked hard at it 2. it was useless, worthless and of no good 3. and it harmed everybody that was around was an injurious lifestyle. What a picture...the result of them doing what was ‘’right in their own eyes’’=>EVIL. Remember that although we might say that their evil was, for example, lust, immorality, etc., EVIL is what God says is EVIL! There are many today who do not understand their relationship with God...they do not understand the covenant of grace (when we get to Hebrews 8:6 you will get excited...when you begin to understand that the NEW COVENANT is something totally different than the other covenants and you begin to realize the worthlessness of what we can do in the flesh and you begin to recognize the beauty and purity of what God can do in and through us you begin to see the significance of this NEW COVENANT relationship...there are many who do not truly understand what this entails with the result that they are still working in their own way in an attempt to somehow please God...they are not those who live and abide and walk in the Word...they’ve got religious works stacked ‘’bigger than Dallas’’ and God calls it EVIL! You may be the sweetest person in the room...why you would never commit would never murder anyone...but in your heart there might be an Attitude that will not allow God to be God in your life and you are not willing to walk in ONENESS with Him. So whatever you call ‘’good’’ in your life, God calls it ‘’evil’’! (From notes on Wayne's Lectures on Covenant - Covenant Precept Upon Precept -- The best course you will ever take -- take it then teach it and yes, pastors [jettison pride, put on the clothing of humility - 1Pe 5:5-note], take it and then preach it -- I can guarantee individuals will be saved, marriages will be saved [It saved mine! All glory to Jehovah, the Covenant keeping God - see Covenant: As It Relates to Marriage], and there may well be a Spirit energized spark of revival in your congregation from this powerful teaching.) (See also Covenant: Why Study It? See the "Related Resources" Index at took of the page - follows along with the Precept Course if you cannot take it -- at least go through the notes!) Poneros in Septuagint Lexicon - evil (of things) Ge 2:9; evil, wicked (of persons) Nu 14,27; evil, ferocious (of animals) Ge 37:20; bad 2Kgs 2:19; severe Ge 12:17; ta. ponera, wicked thoughts, evil deeds Ge 6:5; evil things, immorality Hab 1:13; the evil man Dt 13:6; bad name Sir 5,15; Here are some representative OT uses of poneros, the first group being notable as they speak of the effect of poneros on the entire world, including every person of every age... (Gen 2:9) Out of the ground the LORD God caused to grow every tree that is pleasing to the sight and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. (Gen 2:17) but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat from it you will surely die.” (Gen 3:5) “For God knows that in the day you eat from it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.” (Gen 3:22) Then the LORD God said, “Behold, the man has become like one of Us, knowing good and evil; and now, he might stretch out his hand, and take also from the tree of life, and eat, and live forever”– (Gen 6:5) Then the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great on the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. (Gen 8:21) The LORD smelled the soothing aroma; and the LORD said to Himself, “I will never again curse the ground on account of man, for the intent of man’s heart is evil from his youth (Ed: We are all born with this "evil" seed, the "evil" propensity is inherent in all from the moment of conception, for we have all inherited the "evil" virus from Adam - Ro 5:12-note); and I will never again destroy every living thing, as I have done. Here is a most encouraging use (implying the antidote for the evil in us [Lk 11:13] is to fear the Lord, which by default will cause us to hate evil. The opposite of hate is love, which also seems to link fear of God with love of God, which would make sense)... (Proverbs 8:13) "The fear of the LORD is to hate evil; Pride and arrogance and the evil way And the perverted mouth, I hate. (See William Arnot's thoughts in his great book - Laws from heaven for life on earth) These evil men epitomize the adage "Like father, like son" and are the very ones Paul has described in the earlier, 2Ti 3:2, 3, 4, 5 (notes) describing specifically the character and conduct of evil men and 2Ti 3:6, 7, 8, 9 (notes) the character and conduct of the "imposters". How does the truth of the worsening state of evil men and imposters relate to the prior verse? The connection is that Timothy was not to expect that he would be exempt from persecution by any change for the better in the evil men to who Paul referred. To the contrary Timothy must realize that not only are difficult days going to bring difficult people (cf 2Ti 3:1, 2, 3, 4, 5) but these days would grow more dangerous and more deceptive spiritually and the likelihood of his being persecuted for the sake of righteousness would certainly not decrease. To reiterate Timothy (and all believers) should not expect any let up in the conflict and persecution he must face. Both men in general ("evil men," poneros) and religious counterfeits ("imposters," goes) will "grow worse and worse." Literally it reads, "they will cut forward to what is worse." This same imagery of "cutting forward" to greater ungodliness has been previously alluded to in 2Ti 2:16 (note). As they seek to lead others away from the truth ("deceiving"), they themselves fall prey to "being deceived" and thus become the blind leading the blind into greater and greater darkness. These are the kind of men who will seek to influence and intimidate Timothy as he presses on towards completely fulfilling his God-appointed ministry. We can also expect the same! AND IMPOSTERS WILL PROCEED FROM BAD TO WORSE: kai goetes prokopsousin (3PFAI) epi to cheiron: (cf 2Ti 2:16) Charlatans (NAB, NET) false teachers (TLB) phony preachers (GWT) juggling imposters (Darby) seducers (DRB). Even Shakespeare recognized that... The devil hath power to assume a pleasing shape.

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