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Know (1921) (epiginosko [Epiginōskō] from epí means upon but is used here to intensify the force of the following verb + ginosko = to know) (See related noun epignosis) means to know fully, to know with certainty, to become thoroughly acquainted with or to know thoroughly, exactly, fully, or completely. Epiginosko means to possess more or less definite information about, and can imply a degree of thoroughness. It speaks of full or added knowledge. To be fully acquainted in a discerning, recognizing manner. (e.g., 1Co 13:12 twice uses "fully known," Lk 1:4; Col 1:6; 2Cor 6:9, et al) To ascertain (find out with certainty) (Acts 23:28, 24:8). To recognize a thing to be what it really is. In fairness, it should be noted that a few sources (J. Armitage Robinson in his commentary on Greek text of Ephesians) see no significant difference in meaning between epiginosko and ginosko and thus do not favor the idea of a more thorough or complete knowledge with the epiginosko/epignosis word group. Friberg (Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament. Baker Academic) in fact divides the definitions of epiginosko as follows... (1) with no emphasis on the epi-prefix; (a) recognize, know (Mt 11.27; cf. Lk 10.22); (b) perceive, notice, become aware of (Mk 5.30; cf. Lk 8.46); (c) learn of, find out (Lk 7.37) (d) acknowledge, understand (2Co 1.13); (2) with the preposition (epi) intensifying the meaning; (a) know exactly, fully, completely (Lk 1.4); (b) especially in relation to higher and spiritual knowledge received through revelation fully know, perfectly know (Col 1.6) Wuest explains that epiginosko is... “knowledge gained by experience,” thus, a personal knowledge. This is the meaning of the simple verb (ginosko). The prefixed preposition epi is perfective in meaning, intensifying the already existing idea in the verb. Thus, the compound verb means, “personal knowledge gained by experience and which is clear.” (Wuest, K. S. Wuest's Word Studies from the Greek New Testament: Eerdmans ) Epiginosko also means to recognize a thing to be what it really is, to acknowledge, to understand (1Co 14:37, 16:18; 2Co 1:13, 14) Here in Romans 1:32 epiginosko denotes the clear discernment which these suppressors of the truth about God in fact had of God's regulations of "right and wrong". Robertson writes that The heathen knows that God condemns such evil practices Why did they know "beyond a shadow of a doubt"? Paul explained... that which is known about God is evident within them; for God made it evident to that they are without excuse...they knew God, they did not honor Him as God, or give thanks; but they became futile in their speculations, and their foolish heart was darkened. (see exposition of Romans 1:21ff) For when Gentiles who do not have the Law do instinctively the things of the Law, these, not having the Law, are a law to themselves, in that they show the work of the Law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness, and their thoughts alternately accusing or else defending them, (Romans 2:14,15) Epiginosko in Ro 1:32 is in the aorist tense which indicates that they had been effectively made aware of God's ordinance. These men have a full experiential knowledge not only that the things they practice are wrong but also that they themselves are deserving of death. They know this is God’s verdict, however much they seek to rationalize or even legalize these sins (cp states sanctioning gay marriage in the United States!). But this knowledge does not deter them from indulging in these forms of ungodliness (which speaks to the power of the fallen flesh!) In fact these truth rejecters unite with others to promote ungodly behavior and feel a sense of camaraderie with their partners-in-sin. Ralph Earle (Word Meanings in the New Testament) has several notes on epiginosko... Arndt and Gingrich feel that in some cases (e.g., 1Co 13:12) epiginosko means "know completely," but that most of the time it is simply equivalent to ginosko. The same would go for the nouns epignosis and gnosis. Thayer puts the case more strongly. After noting that "epi denotes mental direction towards, application to, that which is known," he gives as the first definition for epiginosko: "to become thoroughly acquainted with, to know thoroughly; to know accurately, know well" (p. 237). For epignosis he gives: "precise and correct knowledge." Trench agrees with this when he writes Of epignosis, as compared with gnosis, it will be sufficient to say that epi must be regarded as intensive, giving to the compound word a greater strength than the simple possessed (p. 285) Likewise Cremer says that epignosis signifies clear and exact knowledge, more intensive than gnosis, because it expresses a more thorough participation in the object of knowledge on the part of the knowing subject (p. 159). Lightfoot concurs. Commenting on this passage (Col 1:9 - which uses the noun epignosis), he writes The compound epignosis is an advance upon gnosis, denoting a larger and more thorough knowledge (p. 138). Alford quotes Delitzsch as saying: When epignosis is used, there is the assumption of an actual direction of the spirit to a definite object and of a real grasping of the same: so that we may speak of a false gnósis, but not of a false epignosis. And the Writer (of Hebrews - referring to He 10:26-note) Wuest commenting on Peter's use of the noun epignosis in 2 Peter 1:2 writes that Knowledge” or epignosis is full, perfect, precise knowledge as opposed to gnósis, imperfect, partial knowledge. Strachan says: “epígnōsis, ‘involving the complete appropriation of all truth and the unreserved acquiescence in God’s will, is the goal and crown of the believer’s course’ (Lightfoot) … epignosis implies a more intimate and personal relationship than gnósis. It would be a useful word, seeing that gnósis had become associated with Gnosticism, then incipient in the Church.… Grace and peace are multiplied in and through this more intimate heart knowledge of Jesus Christ, in contrast to a mere barren gnósis. ” Epiginosko - 44 times in the NT -- Mt 7:16-note, Mt 7:20-note; 11.27" class="scriptRef">Mt 11:27; 14:35; 17:12; Mk 2:8; 5:30; 6:33, 6:54; Lk 1:4, 22; 5:22; 7:37; 23:7; 24:16, 31; Acts 3:10; 4:13; 9:30; 12:14; 19:34; 22:24, 29; 23:28; 24:8, 11; 25:10; 27:39; 28:1; Ro 1:32-note; 1Co 13:12; 14:37; 16:18; 2Co 1:13, 14; 6:9; 13:5; Col 1:6-note; 1Ti 4:3; 2Pe 2:21-note In the NAS epiginosko is translated -- acknowledge(1), ascertain(2), aware(2), find out(1), found out(2), fully known(1),know(7), know fully(1), known(2), knows(1), learned(3), perceiving(1), realized(1), recognize(5), recognized(6), recognizing(1),take note(1), taking note(1), understand(3), understood(1), well-known(1). Matthew 7:16-note "You will know them by their fruits. Grapes are not gathered from thorn bushes nor figs from thistles, are they? Matthew 7:20-note"So then, you will know them by their fruits. Matthew 11:27 "All things have been handed over to Me by My Father; and no one knows the Son except the Father; nor does anyone know the Father except the Son, and anyone to whom the Son wills to reveal Him. Matthew 14:35 And when the men of that place recognized Him, they sent word into all that surrounding district and brought to Him all who were sick; Matthew 17:12 but I say to you that Elijah already came, and they did not recognize him, but did to him whatever they wished. So also the Son of Man is going to suffer at their hands." Mark 2:8 Immediately Jesus, aware in His spirit that they were reasoning that way within themselves, said to them, "Why are you reasoning about these things in your hearts? Marvin Vincent: The preposition epi gives the force of fully. He was not only immediately aware of their thought, but clearly and fully aware. Mark 5:30 Immediately Jesus, perceiving in Himself that the power proceeding from Him had gone forth, turned around in the crowd and said, "Who touched My garments?" Mark 6:33 The people saw them going, and many recognized them and ran there together on foot from all the cities, and got there ahead of them. Mark 6:54 When they got out of the boat, immediately the people recognized Him, Comment: to know fully by experience, to recognize Jesus, knowing full as nearly all did by now Luke 1:4 so that you may know the exact truth about the things you have been taught. Luke 1:22 But when he came out, he was unable to speak to them; and they realized that he had seen a vision in the temple; and he kept making signs to them, and remained mute. Luke 5:22 But Jesus, aware of their reasonings, answered and said to them, "Why are you reasoning in your hearts? Luke 7:37 And there was a woman in the city who was a sinner; and when she learned that He was reclining at the table in the Pharisee's house, she brought an alabaster vial of perfume, Luke 23:7 And when he learned (having gained full knowledge) that He belonged to Herod's jurisdiction, he sent Him to Herod, who himself also was in Jerusalem at that time. Luke 24:16 But their eyes were prevented from recognizing Him. Luke 24:31 Then their eyes were opened and they recognized Him; and He vanished from their sight. Acts 3:10 and they were taking note of him as being the one who used to sit at the Beautiful Gate of the temple to beg alms, and they were filled with wonder and amazement at what had happened to him. Acts 4:13 Now as they observed the confidence of Peter and John and understood that they were uneducated and untrained men, they were amazed, and began to recognize them as having been with Jesus. Acts 9:30 But when the brethren learned of it, they brought him down to Caesarea and sent him away to Tarsus. Acts 12:14 When she recognized Peter's voice, because of her joy she did not open the gate, but ran in and announced that Peter was standing in front of the gate. Acts 19:34 But when they recognized that he was a Jew, a single outcry arose from them all as they shouted for about two hours, "Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!" Acts 22:24 the commander ordered him to be brought into the barracks, stating that he should be examined by scourging so that he might find out (might know) the reason why they were shouting against him that way. Acts 22:29 Therefore those who were about to examine him immediately let go of him; and the commander also was afraid when he found out that he was a Roman, and because he had put him in chains. Acts 23:28 "And wanting to ascertain the charge for which they were accusing him, I brought him down to their Council; Acts 24:8 ordering his accusers to come before you. By examining him yourself concerning all these matters you will be able to ascertain the things of which we accuse him."...11 since you can take note of the fact that no more than twelve days ago I went up to Jerusalem to worship. Acts 25:10 But Paul said, "I am standing before Caesar's tribunal, where I ought to be tried. I have done no wrong to the Jews, as you also very well know. Acts 27:39 When day came, they could not recognize the land; but they did observe a bay with a beach, and they resolved to drive the ship onto it if they could. Acts 28:1 When they had been brought safely through, then we found out that the island was called Malta. Romans 1:32-note and although they know the ordinance of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of death, they not only do the same, but also give hearty approval to those who practice them. Comment: These individuals are like the false teachers in 2Peter 2:21 who in an intellectual sense fully knew that way of salvation was by grace through faith and yet they stubbornly refused to receive that truth as a gift. This is an amazing realization that there are people who have a full understanding of what God requires and STILL REFUSE Him. How hard can a heart be! We probably all know some of these folks and they literally break our hearts. There is nothing we can do except live the Christ life before them and pray that God's Spirit might one day penetrate their stony hearts. 1 Corinthians 13:12 For now we see in a mirror dimly, but then face to face; now I know in part, but then I will know fully just as I also have been fully known. 1 Corinthians 14:37 If anyone thinks he is a prophet or spiritual, let him recognize that the things which I write to you are the Lord's commandment. 1 Corinthians 16:18 For they have refreshed my spirit and yours. Therefore acknowledge such men. MacArthur comments: Epiginōskō (acknowledge) signifies recognition of something for what it really is. In 14:37 Paul uses the term to tell the Corinthians to “recognize that the things which I write to you are the Lord’s commandment.” Now he tells them to recognize faithful, godly workers for what they are. 2 Corinthians 1:13 For we write nothing else to you than what you read (Related verb = anaginosko) and understand (epiginosko), and I hope you will understand until the end; 14 just as you also partially did understand us, that we are your reason to be proud as you also are ours, in the day of our Lord Jesus. Comment: There is clearly a play on words as both verbs have ginosko as their root. Anaginosko refers to what the Corinthians read in his letters and epiginosko to what they know through personal contact with him. The Corinthians are being assured that the two are in complete harmony. 2 Corinthians 6:9 as unknown yet well-known, as dying yet behold, we live; as punished yet not put to death, 2 Corinthians 13:5-note Test yourselves to see if you are in the faith; examine yourselves! Or do you not recognize this about yourselves, that Jesus Christ is in you-- unless indeed you fail the test? Colossians 1:6-note which has come to you, just as in all the world also it is constantly bearing fruit and increasing, even as it has been doing in you also since the day you heard of it and understood the grace of God in truth; 1 Timothy 4:3 men who forbid marriage and advocate abstaining from foods which God has created to be gratefully shared in by those who believe and know the truth. 2 Peter 2:21-note For it would be better for them not to have known the way of righteousness, than having known it, to turn away from the holy commandment handed on to them. Comment: Peter's use of epiginosko indicates these false teachers had no excuse but fully knew and understood the way of righteousness, the path through Jesus that alone leads to salvation but they refused to receive, believe and be saved by that full knowledge. Woe! They will be held that much more accountable at the judgment of unbelievers because they knew the right way. Epiginosko - More than 7.9" class="scriptRef">90 uses in the non-apocryphal Septuagint (Lxx)- 27.14" class="scriptRef">14.23" class="scriptRef">23" class="scriptRef">Gen. 27:23; 31:32; 37:32f; 38:15, 25f; 41:31; 42.7-Gen.42.38" class="scriptRef">42:7f; 17" class="scriptRef">Deut. 1:17; 19" class="scriptRef">16:19; 21.17" class="scriptRef">21:17; 33:9; 18.3" class="scriptRef">Jdg. 18:3; 10" class="scriptRef">Ruth 2:10, 19; 14" class="scriptRef">3:14, 18; 1 Sam. 26:17; 2 Sam. 19:7; 1 Ki. 20:41; Ezr. 3:13; 11.12" class="scriptRef">12" class="scriptRef">Neh. 6:12; 13:24; Esther 1:1; 3:5; 4:1; Job 2:12; 4:16; 6:17; 7:10; 24:13, 16f; 34:27; Ps. 103:16; 142:4; Prov. 14:8; 24:23; 27:23; 30:18; Is 61:9; 63:16; Jer. 4:22; 5:5; 24:5; Lam. 4:8; Ezek. 5:13; 6:7, 10, 14; 7:4, 9; 11:10, 12; 12:20; 13:14, 21; 14:8, 23; 15:7; 16:62; 17:21; 20:38, 42, 44, 48; 21:5; 22:22; 24:24, 27; 25:5, 7, 11, 14, 17; Dan. 2:3; 4:31; 6:10; 11:39; Hos. 2:20; 5:4; 7:9; 14:9; Joel 2:27; 3:17; Jon. 1:7; Hab. 3:2; Hag. 2:19; Zech. 2:11; 4:9; 6:10, 14; Malachi 2:4 John Piper notes that... This is an astonishing affirmation about human nature. Everybody has knowledge of God and the moral law of God, whether they have seen a Bible or not, or whether they live in America or in an undiscovered people group of Irian Jaya...The second observation is that this knowledge means people are without excuse before God not only because of the way they treat God, but also because of the way they treat each other. (Romans 1:28-32 Doing and Endorsing Evil) Haldane writes that... This the heathens knew, from the work of the law written in their hearts. Although they had almost entirely stifled in themselves the dictates of conscience, it did not cease, in some measure, to remonstrate against the unworthiness of their conduct, and to threaten the wrath of God, which their sins deserved. They recognized it by some remains they had of right notions of the Godhead (Editorial note: One example is the worldwide existence of the remnants of covenant - see H Clay Trumbull's fascinating work "The Blood Covenant" the second edition published in 1885) and by which they still understood that God was judge of the world; and this was confirmed to them by examples of Divine vengeance which sometimes passed before their eyes. They knew it even by the false ideas of the superstition in which they were plunged, which required them to seek for expiations. That they knew it in a measure is evident by their laws, which awarded punishments to some of those vices of which they were guilty. (Haldane, R. An Exposition of Romans.) Albert Barnes writing about their knowledge of God's ordinance says that this is substantiated by the secular writings... Livy says of the age of Augustus, in some respects the brightest period of the Roman history, "Rome has increased by her virtues until now, when we can neither bear our vices nor their remedy." (Preface to his History.) Seneca, one of the purest moralists of Rome, who died A. D. 65, says of his own time, "All is full of criminality and vice; indeed much more of these is committed than can be remedied by force. A monstrous contest of abandoned wickedness is carried on. The lust of sin increases daily; and shame is daily more and more extinguished. Discarding respect for all that is good and sacred, lust rushes on wherever it will. Vice no longer hides itself. It stalks forth before all eyes. So public has abandoned wickedness become, and so openly does it flame up in the minds of all, that innocence is no longer seldom, but has wholly ceased to exist," Seneca de Ira, ii. 8. Further authorities of this kind could be easily given, but these will show that the apostle Paul did not speak at random when he charged them with these enormous crimes. (Romans 1)

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