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Dominion (2904) (kratos) means strength or might, especially manifested power, the power to rule or control or dominion (power to rule, supreme authority, sovereignty, the right to govern or rule or determine). Krátos denotes the presence and significance of force or strength rather than its exercise. It is the ability to exhibit or express resident strength. See note by Wayne Barber on kratos. Kratos -12x times in the NT = Lk. 1:51; Acts 19:20; Eph. 1:19; 6:10; Col. 1:11; 1Ti 6:16; Heb. 2:14; 1Pe 4:11; 5:11; Jude 1:25; Rev. 1:6; 5:13. NAS translates krátos as: dominion, 6; might, 1; mightily, 1; mighty deeds, 1; power, 1; strength, 2. Kratos - 17x in the Septuagint (Lxx)- Gen. 49:24; Deut. 8:17; Jdg. 4:3; Ezr. 8:22; Job 12:16; 21:23; Ps. 59:9; 62:11; 76:3; 86:16; 89:9; 90:11; Prov. 27:24; Is 22:21; 40:26; Dan. 4:30; 11:1; Regarding the derivation of krátos, Vine writes that this word means force, strength, might, more especially manifested power, is derived from a root kra—, to perfect, to complete: “creator” is probably connected. It also signifies dominion, and is so rendered frequently in doxologies." (Vine, W E. Vine's Expository dictionary of Old and New Testament words. Vol. 2, Page 1-333. Old Tappan NJ: Revell) Most of the NT uses (10/12) are in references to God Almighty, and make the point that ultimate dominion belongs to God Alone. In the first NT use we see Mary praising her Lord ("The Magnificat" = the first word in the Latin translation) declaring that He has done mighty deeds (krátos) with His arm. He has scattered those who were proud in the thoughts of their heart. (Luke 1:51) Wuest translates this as "He brought about strength with His arm". Mary reflects on reflects on God’s power in reversing certain social conditions (read Luke 1:52, 53) Paul uses krátos in two prayers, praying for the Ephesians that the eyes of your heart may be enlightened, so that you may know what is the hope of His calling, what are the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints, and what is the surpassing greatness of His power (dunamis - inherent power available only to believers) toward us who believe. These are in accordance with the working (energeia - depicts the energizing force of the Spirit that empowers believers to live for the Lord) of the strength (krátos) of His might (ischus = carries idea of endowed power or ability, power as an enduement) 20 which He brought about in Christ, when He raised Him from the dead, and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places." (see notes Ephesians 1:18; 1:19; 1:20) Wuest paraphrases it And what is the superabounding greatness of His inherent power to us who are believing ones as measured by the operative energy of the manifested strength of His might, which (might) was operative in the Christ when He raised Him out from among the dead (emphasizes the magnitude of the power) and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenly places. Paul prays that the Colossians might be strengthened (present tense - continually, passive voice - from outside source = God) with all power (dunamis - inherent power), according to His glorious might (kratos - strength in action, manifested power, power that is put forth in action), for the attaining of all steadfastness and patience." (Col 1:11-note) God’s power is manifested in us through the ministry of the Holy Spirit. To live the supernatural life we need not mere human energy but supernatural strength, the power of the risen Son of God. Note that it is not "out of" but "according to" His glorious might. What's the difference? Out of speaks of a portion of His power. But according to speaks of proportion and God's power is infinite. The former speaks of a miserly giving, the latter of abundant, generous giving. The first is like a billionaire giving you a dollar, the latter of his giving proportionate to his great wealth. In Col 1:11-note Paul is saying in effect “With all power being empowered according to the might of His glory.” Spiritual growth and maturity comes as we yield to God’s power and permit Him to work in us. We usually think of God’s glorious power being revealed in great feats of daring but the emphasis here is on God's power to effect one's Christian character. As most believers who have walked with the Lord for some time would agree, it is those inner victories in one's soul that are as great as God's more famous miracles (Red Sea, etc). Think about the victory David experienced over his temper when he was being cursed by Shimei. Surely this victory over a spiritual "giant" was no less of a personal victory for David than his triumph over the physical giant Goliath (see 2 Sa 16:5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13) Paul exhorts the Ephesian saints Finally, (present tense - continually, passive voice - His power not ours) be strong in the Lord (be empowered through your union with Him), and in the strength (krátos) of His might (ischus - indwelling strength, capability to function effectively) (that strength which His boundless might provides)." (Ephesians 6:10-note) (Comment: We can be strong in the Lord because as explained especially in chapter 1 regarding our position in Christ, believers are now one with Christ our Living Head, Who Himself is our life {Colossians 3:4 note}, our Way, and our Truth. If He is our life, His strength is our strength but does require that we humble ourselves and submit to His Lordship - see 2Cor 12:9-note, 2Cor 12:10-note, Philippians 4:13-note, 2 Timothy 2:1-note) God’s best soldiers are those who are conscious of their own weakness and ineffectiveness, and who rely solely on Him. Five uses of krátos are found as part of a doxology (doxa - glory, praise + logos - word, utterance), a brief worshipful expression of praise to God, literally a "word of glory" or "utterance of praise". The fact that most NT doxologies are often found intimately associated with practical doctrine for living, suggests that believers should seek to live our everyday lives as a "doxology" to our God and Father. The NT writers had also learned that praise is an important factor in achieving victory over discouragement and depression. Note how in the NT theology leads to doxology. Biblical truth ignites hearts and enflames lives with a fervent, passionate love for God. The more truth about God one learns and personally applies, the more clearly he or she will see, submit to, and worship Him... A Word-filled church will be a worshiping church." (Lawson, Steven. Bibliotheca Sacra. Vol. 158, page 214. April-June, 2001) Earlier discussing spiritual gifts, Peter wrote that Whoever speaks, let him speak, as it were, the utterances of God; whoever serves, let him do so as by the strength which God supplies; so that in all things God may be glorified through Jesus Christ (this is the goal of everything), to Whom belongs the glory and dominion (krátos - the definite article in the Greek marks krátos as a separate and distinct possession, rightfully belonging to Him) forever and ever (literally “unto the ages of the ages” = strengthened form of “forever” emphasizing the thought of eternity in the strongest way). Amen (“so let it be” = not a wish but a strong affirmation, placing a seal of approval on what has just been said)" (1Peter 4:11-note) God exercises krátos, the might and power in action, marking Him as the sovereign Ruler over all. Reason, gratitude, love, all utter their deep “Amen’ to the declaration that God through Christ has endless glory and dominion. Barclay comments that... The aim of everything is that God should be glorified. Preaching is not done to display the preacher but to bring men face to face with God. Service is rendered not to bring prestige to the giver but to turn men’s thoughts to God. Selwyn reminds us that the motto of the great Benedictine Order of monks is four letters—IOGD—which stand for the Latin words In Omnibus Glorificetur Deus (in order that in all things God may be glorified). A new grace and glory would enter the Church, if all church people ceased doing things for themselves and did them for God." (W. Barclay. The Daily study Bible series, Rev. ed. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press) Paul ends his first letter to Timothy with a beautiful doxology declaring that He who is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords, Who alone possesses immortality and dwells in unapproachable light; whom no man has seen or can see. To Him be honor and eternal dominion (krátos)! Amen." (1 Ti 6:15-16) In the Revelation, John concludes his doxology with the only proper response in light of the magnitude of the blessings Christ has given believers, declaring that He has made us to be a kingdom (in which we enjoy His loving, gracious rule and almighty, sovereign protection), priests (believers have the privilege of direct access to the Father) to His God and Father; to Him be the glory and the dominion (krátos) forever and ever. Amen. (Rev 1:6-note) All believers now live in the sphere of God’s rule, a kingdom which was entered through the door of faith in Christ Jesus our Lord. As God's royal priests, we now have the privilege to speak forth the excellencies of Him who called us out of darkness into His marvelous light. And as we meditate on such amazing love for those so unlovely, we can only cry out that He is worthy of all the glory, honor, worship, and praise that we can heap upon Him. And He is worthy of dominion over our lives, the church, the world, and the entire universe. Does He really have dominion over my life or do I have one foot in the kingdom of this present evil world? We cannot serve two masters. In Revelation we read that all believers will be among those who proclaim speak praise (doxology) to God, John recording that every created thing which is in heaven and on the earth and under the earth and on the sea, and all things in them, I heard saying, “To Him who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb, be blessing and honor and glory and dominion forever and ever." (see note Revelation 5:13) Jude records to the only God our Savior, through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, dominion (krátos here referring to the unchallenged sway which is His by sovereign right) and authority, before all time and now and forever (He was worthy of such praise in the past, He is worthy at the present time, and He will be worthy of it throughout eternity). Amen." (Jude 1:25) One reference speaks of the power of the Word of God, Luke recording that as a result of the public renunciation of pagan practices powerfully [krátos] was the word of God increasing and prevailing" in Ephesus (Young's Literal, Acts 19:20) All the devil's forces of the occult and magic arrayed against the Word could not overpower it. The bold preaching of the gospel, the confirming miracles, the defeat of the exorcists, the resultant awe and respect for the name of Jesus, and the public repudiation of the magical arts demonstrated the invincible might of God’s Word and provided a fertile environment in which it would grow. As someone has well said if Christians in America were to burn their trashy books and magazines, then perhaps we might see God's Holy Word would prevail in a much more powerful way in our secular culture. There is one use of krátos referring to the devil, Hebrews recording that Since then the children share in flesh and blood, He Himself likewise also partook of the same, that through death He might render powerless him who had the power of death, that is, the devil (Heb 2:14-note) By conquering death, Jesus rendered Satan powerless against all who are saved. Satan's dominion over the human race was in the form of death. That dominion is now broken by the Cross of Jesus. Krátos is used 16 times in the Septuagint (LXX - Greek of Hebrew OT). For example, Job although sorely afflicted was still able to praise God and declare that with (God) are strength (LXX = krátos) and sound wisdom, the misled and the misleader belong to Him." (Job 12:16) In one of the many majestic descriptions of Jehovah in Isaiah records Lift up your eyes on high and see Who has created these stars. The One who leads forth their host by number. He calls them all by name. Because of the greatness of His might (LXX has "by the power [krátos] of His might) and the strength of His power not one of them is missing." (Is 40:26) Nebuchadnezzar made a grave mistake in boasting Is this not Babylon the great, which I myself have built as a royal residence by the might of my power (LXX = krátos) and for the glory of my majesty?" (Da 4:30) God immediately removed "the might of his power" and drove him out into the beasts of the field to eat grass like the cattle. 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