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Be multiplied (4129) (plethuno from plethos = fullness from pletho = to fill) means to be made full, grow, increase or be multiplied. In the active sense it means to cause to increase, to cause to become greater in number, to multiply (increase in number especially greatly). See J H Jowett's comments To cause to become greater in magnitude, as when God flooded the earth (Ge 7:17, 18 where plethuno is used in the Lxx) Literally plethuno describes a numerical increase in Acts 6:1, 7, 7:17, 9:31 (Lxx use in Ex 1:20, 1Sa 14:19) Figuratively plethuno is used to describe an increase in lawlessness in the last of the last days (Mt 24:12 - and this increase could easily be both in a numerical sense and magnitude, greater and greater degrees of lawlessness), an increase in the spread of the Word (Acts 12:24), an increase in a harvest of righteousness (2Co 9:10), and in prayers for increased grace and peace (2Pe 1:2, Jude 1:2) NIDNTT has this background on plethuno and the related noun form plethos... The noun plethos is attested from Homer onwards. It is connected with the root ple- , meaning fullness, and means a crowd or multitude, in contrast to a small number or an individual. It can also denote what is too big to count. The verb plethuno (in which the ending -uno means make) means to make full, to fill; intrans. to be full. The noun plethos is used: (a) as a general term denoting a great number of things, and, in connection with time, duration; (b) with persons, a multitude, crowd; as a military term, a mass of troops; from a sociological and derogatory standpoint, the mass which lacks culture and moral understanding; in a democracy, the total number of voters or the majority that turns the scales in political decisions; people, population; the assembly (e.g. of the citizens of Athens); in religious communities, the body of members, the whole group, the congregation. The plural can be used to give emphasis (crowds, flocks). Otherwise, an adjective can be added to give emphasis. Plethos can also be used as an adj., many (the comparative, more, the great majority; and the superlative, most). The meaning of the verb plethuno corresponds to that of the noun: transitively = increase, enlarge, multiply; in the passive and intransitively = to increase in number, grow, fill, be full. (Brown, Colin, Editor. New International Dictionary of NT Theology. 1986. Zondervan or Computer version) Plethuno -12 times in 11 verses in the NT...clearly a favorite verb of Peter who used it in the salutation of both of his epistles... Matthew 24:12 "Because lawlessness is increased, most people's love will grow cold. Acts 6:1 Now at this time while the disciples were increasing in number, a complaint arose on the part of the Hellenistic Jews against the native Hebrews, because their widows were being overlooked in the daily serving of food. Acts 6:7 The word of God kept on spreading; and the number of the disciples continued to increase greatly in Jerusalem, and a great many of the priests were becoming obedient to the faith. Acts 7:17 "But as the time of the promise was approaching which God had assured to Abraham, the people increased (auxano) and multiplied in Egypt, Acts 9:31 So the church throughout all Judea and Galilee and Samaria enjoyed peace, being built up; and going on in the fear of the Lord and in the comfort of the Holy Spirit, it continued to increase. (in numbers) Acts 12:24 But the word of the Lord (synonymous with the gospel) continued to grow and to be multiplied. Comment: How is the Word of the Lord (the gospel) "multiplied"? The Word (Gospel in this context) functions like seed, which when implanted in a good and honest heart (Lk 8:15), bears fruit. These new believers result in a growth of (multiplication in) the Body of Christ, in spite of (probably "because of"!) opposition and persecution. 2 Corinthians 9:10 Now He who supplies seed to the sower and bread for food will supply and multiply your seed for sowing and increase the harvest of your righteousness; Hebrews 6:14-note saying, "I WILL SURELY BLESS YOU AND I WILL SURELY MULTIPLY YOU." (Quoting the Septuagint of Ge 22:17, compare this as a partial fulfillment of the prophetic promise in Ge 3:16) NET Note: "in blessing I will bless you and in multiplying I will multiply you," the Greek form of a Hebrew idiom showing intensity. 1 Peter 1:2-note according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, by the sanctifying work of the Spirit, to obey Jesus Christ and be sprinkled with His blood: May grace and peace be yours in the fullest measure. 2 Peter 1:2 Grace and peace be multiplied to you in the knowledge of God and of Jesus our Lord; Jude 1:2 May mercy and peace and love be multiplied to you. Comment: Plethuno is used in the greetings in 2 Peter and Jude as prayers for "spiritual prosperity". Multiplied here in 2Peter 1:2 (and in Jude 1:2) is in the optative mood (optative of wish) which expresses a wish and in the NT almost always indicates a prayer ("may it be multiplied, conferred abundantly"). The passive voice indicates that the multiplication of the grace and peace comes from an outside source, clearly from God's throne of grace. GRACE X PEACE = Spiritual Prosperity (Blessing) Stop for a moment and ponder the glorious implication of infinite grace (2Cor 8:9) multiplied by infinite peace (Php 4:7-note). The product surely includes eternal fulness of joy (Jn 15:11), abundant life (Jn 10:10) and an ever flowing river of "living water" (Jn 7:38). J Vernon McGee adds that Peter is a New Testament writer who uses arithmetic. He says, “Grace and peace be multiplied”—he is talking about multiplication. Paul didn’t go into mathematics. He said that God is rich in grace and that the peace of God passes all understanding, but Simon Peter gets down to where the rubber meets the road. He takes out the multiplication table and says, “I hope grace and peace will be multiplied unto you.” How wonderful this is." (McGee, J V: Thru the Bible Commentary: Thomas Nelson) (Mp3) Plethuno -153 times in the Septuagint (LXX)! 22" class="scriptRef">22" class="scriptRef">Ge 1:22, 28" class="scriptRef">28; 16" class="scriptRef">16" class="scriptRef">3:16; 6:5; 9.7" class="scriptRef">7.17-Gen.7.24" class="scriptRef">7:17f; 8:17; 9:1, 7; 10" class="scriptRef">10" class="scriptRef">16:10; 17:2, 20" class="scriptRef">20; 18:20; 22:17 (Quoted in 14" class="scriptRef">14" class="scriptRef">Heb 6:14); Ge 26:4, 24; 28:3; 12" class="scriptRef">34:12; 35:11; 38.12" class="scriptRef">38:12; 47:27; 48:4, 16; Exod. 1:7, 10, 20; 7:3; 11:9; 25.16" class="scriptRef">Lev. 25:16; 26:9; Num. 33:54; Deut. 1:10; 6:3; 13" class="scriptRef">7:13, 22; 8:13; 13:17; 17:16f; 28:11, 63; Jos. 24:3; 29" class="scriptRef">Jdg. 9:29; 16:24; 1 Sam. 1:12; 7:2; 14:19; 25:10; 2 Sam. 14:11; 22:36; 1 Ki. 2:35; 3:14; 4:30; 2 Ki. 21:6; 1 Chr. 4:10, 38; 7:4; 8:40; 23" class="scriptRef">23.11" class="scriptRef">23:11; 27:23; 2 Chr. 33:6, 23; 36:14; Ezra 4:22; 9:6; 10:13; Neh. 9:23; Job 39:4; Ps. 3:1; 4:7; 16:4; 18:14; 25:19; 36:7; 38:19; 40:5, 12; 49:16; 65:9f, 13; 69:4; 78:38; 92:12, 14; 106:29; 107:38; 119:69; 139:18; 144:13; Prov. 4:10; 13:11; 28:8, 28; Eccl. 5:11; 6:11; 10:14; Isa. 1:15; 6:12; 14:2; 51.2" class="scriptRef">51:2; 57:9; Jer. 2:22; 3:16; 5:6; 15:8; 23:3; 29:6; 30:14, 16; 46:11, 23; Lam. 1:1; 2:5, 22; Ezek. 11:6; 16:7, 25, 29, 51; 19:2; 21:15; 22:25; 23:19; 24:10; 27:15; 28:5; 36:10f, 29f, 37; Dan. 4:1; 6:25; 11:39; 12:4; Hos. 2:8; 8:11, 14; 9:7; 10:1; 12:1, 10; Joel 3:13; Amos 4:4, 9; Nah. 3:16; Hab. 2:6; Zech. 10:8 Here are a few uses from the Septuagint... Genesis 1:22 And God blessed them, saying, "Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth." Genesis 1:28 And God blessed them; and God said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky, and over every living thing that moves on the earth." Genesis 3:16 To the woman He said, "I will greatly multiply Your pain in childbirth, In pain you shall bring forth children; Yet your desire shall be for your husband, And he shall rule over you." Genesis 6:5 Then the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great on (Lxx = were multiplied, cp plethuno in Mt 24:12) the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. It is interesting to note that plethuno is used in the Septuagint (LXX) (Greek of Hebrew OT) in Nebuchadnezzar's benediction, Daniel recording that Nebuchadnezzar the king to all the peoples, nations, and men of every language that live in all the earth: "May your peace abound (Greek reads "peace be multiplied [plethuno] to you!)" (Da 4:1) Peter used plethuno in his introduction of his first epistle writing to those who were... (Chosen or elected) (on what basis were they chosen?) according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, (how was the "election" made a reality?) by the sanctifying work of the Spirit, (how do the elect now conduct themselves, which as an aside ensures them that they are indeed of the elect?) that you may obey Jesus Christ and be sprinkled with His blood: (And so Peter prays...) May grace and peace be yours in fullest measure (plethuno). (1 Peter 1:2 ) Luke explained that the word of God kept on spreading; and the number of the disciples continued to increase greatly in Jerusalem, and a great many of the priests were becoming obedient to the faith. (Acts 6:7) In spite of opposition and persecution the Lord sovereignly prospered the work of His church Luke explaining that the word of the Lord (synonymous with the gospel) continued to grow and to be multiplied (Acts 12:24). In recounting God's faithfulness to fulfill His promise to Abraham to judge the nation that enslaved His people and to bring His people out of bondage, Stephen explained that as the time of the promise (cf Ge 15:14) was approaching which God had assured to Abraham, the people increased and multiplied in Egypt (Acts 7:17). Similarly the writer of Hebrews reiterates God's promise to fulfill the Abrahamic Covenant in which He says (quoting from the KJV which more literal demonstrates the two uses of plethuno in this passage)... Saying, Surely blessing I will bless thee, and multiplying I will multiply thee. (He 6:14-note) Paul uses plethuno to describe the "divine mathematics" of giving back to the Lord, writing that God Who supplies seed to the sower and bread for food, will supply and multiply your seed for sowing and increase the harvest of your righteousness. (2Cor 9:10) Peter's prayer for bountiful blessings of grace and peace parallels many of Paul's similar prayers for the saints such as in his opening greeting Grace to you and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ" (2Th 1:2), later in the body of the same letter "Now may the Lord of peace Himself continually grant you peace in every circumstance. The Lord be with you all!" (2Th 3:16) and finally at the end of the letter praying "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all." (2Th 3:18) We need His provision from beginning to end and then throughout eternity! John Piper emphasizes the critical importance of epignosis in reminding us that knowing God is the means by which his grace and peace become large and powerful in our lives. If you want to enjoy God's peace and be the aroma of his grace in the world, your knowledge of him has to grow. Grace is not a mere deposit. It is a power that leads to godliness and eternal life. And where knowledge of the glory and excellence of God languishes, grace does not flow. The channel from God's infinite reservoir of grace into and through our lives is knowledge of God. We do not study the Scripture for its own sake, but because through it comes the knowledge of God and through that, grace and peace are multiplied in your heart in the church and in the world. In the next two verses of our text Peter builds on this connection now between knowledge of God and the power of grace. (read or listen to Dr Piper's full message entitled Liberating Promises) How are grace and peace multiplied? As discussed above, Peter goes on to say that this "spiritual math" only takes place in the sphere of and by means of true, deep, full, rich, genuine knowledge. Wuest's paraphrase conveys the idea Grace to you, and peace, be multiplied in the sphere of and by the full knowledge of our God, even Jesus, the Lord. IN THE KNOWLEDGE: en epignosei: Journal Article - The Meaning of Epignosis - Robert E Picirelli In the knowledge - In the sphere or "atmosphere" of genuine, experiential knowledge which is based on the Word of truth, which is submitted to and obeyed. Griffith-Thomas writes that "All spiritual grace comes from our personal knowledge and experience of God (see 2Pe 1:3). Those who “know their God” will be strong (Da 11:32; see also Job 22:21 and Jn 17:3). 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