Read & Study the Bible Online - Bible Portal
Authorities (1849) (exousia) is derived from éxesti = it is permitted, it is lawful meaning liberty of action. Exousía means the power to do something and was a technical term used in the law courts, of a legal right. "Authority or right is the dominant meaning (of exousia) in the New Testament." (Vincent) Exousía in short refers to delegated authority and combines the idea of the "right and the might", these attributes having been granted to someone. Vine explains that exousía evolved from the meaning of "leave or permission" or "liberty of doing as one pleases" and passed to that of "the ability or strength with which one is endued," then to that of the "power of authority," the right to exercise power or "the power of rule or government," the power of one whose will and commands must be obeyed by others. (Vine, W E: Vine's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words. 1996. Nelson) Wuest writes that exousía means literally “to be out,” and was used of that authority which a person has which is delegated to him from someone else. The person delegating the authority is in a sense out of himself and acting in the person to whom he has delegated the authority. Thus, the word means “delegated authority.” The word means also “the power of authority and of right.” It was used in legal practice of delegated authority. Here it is used of our Lord as having that authority in Himself, not derived from others. The rabbis quoted from other rabbis and felt themselves to be expounders of tradition. The Messiah struck a new note here, and the people were quick to recognize it. They saw that here was a Teacher who spoke on His own authority." (Ibid) Here in Titus exousía speaks of delegated authority and qualifies the civil rulers as those having duly constituted authority. Exousía -102x - 7.29" class="scriptRef">Mt. 7:29; 20.8" class="scriptRef">8" class="scriptRef">8.9" class="scriptRef">8:9; 9:6, 8; 10:1; 21:23f, 27" class="scriptRef">27; 18" class="scriptRef">18" class="scriptRef">28:18; Mk. 1:22, 27; 2:10; 15" class="scriptRef">3:15; 6:7; 12" class="scriptRef">12" class="scriptRef">12.11" class="scriptRef">11.28-Mark.11.29" class="scriptRef">11:28, 29, 33; 13:34; Lk. 4:6, 32, 36; 5:24; 7:8; 9:1; 19" class="scriptRef">10:19; 12:5, 11; 19:17; 20:2, 8, 20; 22:53; 23:7; Jn. 1:12; 5:27; 10:18; 17:2; 19:10, 11; Acts 1:7; 5:4; 8:19; 9:14; 26:10, 12, 18; Ro 9:21; 13:1, 2, 3; 1Co. 7:37; 8:9; 9:4, 5, 6, 12, 18; 11:10; 15:24; 2 Co. 10:8; 13:10; Eph. 1:21; 2:2; 3:10; 6:12; Col. 1:13, 16; 2:10, 15; 2Th 3:9; Titus 3:1; Heb. 13:10; 1 Pet. 3:22; Jude 1:25; Rev. 2:26; 6:8; 9:3, 10, 19; 11:6; 12:10; 13:2, 4, 5, 7, 12; 14:18; 16:9; 17:12, 13; 18:1; 20:6; 22:14) NAS -authorities, 7; authority, 65; charge, 1; control, 1; domain, 2; dominion, 1; jurisdiction, 1; liberty, 1; power, 11; powers, 1; right, 11. When a person delegates someone to do something for him and in his name, he is in a sense in that person, doing that very thing which he asked the other one to do. For example, the Son of Man on earth had the delegated authority, as the Son of God, from God the Father, to forgive sins, Mark recording that But in order that you may know that the Son of Man has authority (exousía) on earth to forgive sins”—He said to the paralytic— “I say to you, rise, take up your pallet and go home. (Mk 2:10, 11). To further illustrate the meaning we read that Jesus summoned the twelve and began to send them out in pairs; and He was giving them authority over the unclean spirits." (Mk 6:7) Comment: This power over the demons would authenticate their preaching The first use of exousía in the NT is by Matthew (and Mark) who records that when Jesus had finished these words, the multitudes were amazed at His teaching for He was teaching them as one having authority (exousía), and not as their scribes. (Mt 7:28, 29-notes) A T Robertson commenting on the meaning of exousía in Mt 7:29 adds that Jesus "struck a note not found by the rabbi. They quoted other rabbis and felt their function to be expounders of the traditions which they made a millstone around the necks of the people. By so doing they set aside the word and will of God by their traditions and petty legalism (Mk 7:9,13). They were casuists and made false interpretations to prove their punctilious points of external etiquette to the utter neglect of the spiritual reality. The people noticed at once that here was a personality who got his power (authority) direct from God, not from the current scribes." (Titus 3 Word Studies) Paul explained to the Ephesians that prior to their new birth, they had "walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power (exousía) (here synonymous with evil spirits or demons whose realm was the atmosphere) of the air, of the spirit that is now working in the sons of disobedience." (Ep 2:2-note) Exousía is used as a reference to demon powers also in Ep 1:21 (note) and Ep 6:12 (note). Paul uses exousía in his let to the Colossians reminding them that God has "delivered us from the domain (exousia) of darkness and transferred us to the kingdom of His beloved Son in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins." (Col 1:13, 14-notes) Wuest comments that the in Titus 3:1 exousia properly signifies liberty of action, and thus, like the corresponding English word license, involves secondary ideas, of which either may be so prominent as to eclipse the other; (1) authority, delegated power or (2) tyranny, lawlessness, unrestrained or arbitrary power... this latter idea of a capricious unruly rule is prominent here (Col 1:13, 14-notes). The expression ‘the power of darkness’ occurs also in Lk 22:53 (Jesus declared “While I was with you daily in the temple, you did not lay hands on Me; but this hour and the power (exousía) of darkness are yours.”), where again the idea of disorder is involved. The transference from darkness to light is here represented as a transference from an arbitrary tyranny, an exousia, to a well-ordered sovereignty, a kingdom.” The phrase refers to the tyrannical rule of Satan and his demons over the unsaved. (Ibid) God Himself "removes kings and establishes kings" (Da 2:21) Jesus speaking to Pilate reminded even this corrupt ruler that "You would have no authority (exousia) over Me, unless it had been given you from above." (Jn 19:11). God is the sovereign authority and He is in control. Exousía is used 24 times in the non-apocryphal Septuagint (LXX) - 3" class="scriptRef">2Ki 20:13; Esther 3:13; 7" class="scriptRef">17" class="scriptRef">4:17; 12" class="scriptRef">8:12; 14.2" class="scriptRef">Ps 114:2; 136:8 9; Pr 17:14; Eccl 8:8; Da 3:2, 3, 30; 4:1, 3, 17, 26, 27, 31, 34; 5:4, 7, 16, 29; 6:3; 7:6, 12, 14, 26, 27; 11:5; The psalmist writes that we should give thanks to God who made The sun to rule (LXX = exousia) by day, for His lovingkindness is everlasting, the moon and stars to rule (LXX = exousia) by night, for His lovingkindness is everlasting." (Ps 136:8, 9) The heavenly bodies received their "authority to rule" from Jehovah God. In an passage prophesying the reign of Messiah Daniel records that to Him was given the dominion (LXX = exousia), and the honour, and the kingdom; and all nations, tribes, and languages, shall serve him: his dominion (LXX = exousia) is an everlasting dominion (LXX = exousia), which shall not pass away, and his kingdom shall not be destroyed." (Da 7:14-note) In this same section, Daniel predicts the judgment on the "rather small horn" (the Antichrist of Re 13:2-note where And the dragon gave him his power and his throne and great authority." Antichrist's power delegated by Satan) when "the court will sit for judgment and his dominion (LXX = exousia) will be taken away, annihilated and destroyed forever." (Da 7:26-note) Daniel then records that "we the people" receive this exousia, writing that Then the sovereignty, the dominion (LXX = exousia), and the greatness of all the kingdoms under the whole heaven will be given to the people of the saints of the Highest One; His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom, and all the dominions (LXX = exousia) will serve and obey Him." (Da 7:27-note) TO BE OBEDIENT: peitharchein (PAN): To be obedient (3980) (peitharcheo from peitho = persuade, obey + arche = ruler) which literally means to be persuaded by a ruler and then to obey and submit to the authority of rulers or magistrates. This rare verb form is almost a reiteration of the preceding section. Cretans were naturally intractable, and so Paul tells Titus to continually remind the Christians to obey (present tense = continual action called for) the civil authorities, some of whom were undoubtedly "liars, evil beasts, lazy gluttons." (Titus 1:12-note) In such a difficult environment, the old flesh nature can be easily provoked to less than godly words and actions. Therefore the only way believers can successfully heed these instructions is by continual dependence on the "grace of God" (Titus 2:11-note) instructing us to deny ungodliness. The mention of obedience states the result and visible demonstration of their attitude of submission. (Ibid) Polybius wrote that the Cretans were notorious for a rebellious spirit and were constantly involved in insurrections, murders and internecine wars. TO BE READY FOR EVERY GOOD DEED: pros pan ergon agathon hetoimous einai, (PAN): (Titus 3:8,14; 2:14; 1Cor 15:58; Gal 6:9,10; Ep 2:10; Php 1:11; Col 1:10; 1Ti 5:10; 2Ti 2:21; Heb 13:21) "Copy and paste the address below into your web browser in order to go to the original page which will allow you to access live links related to the material on this page - these links include Scriptures (which can be read in context), Scripture pop-ups on mouse over, and a variety of related resources such as Bible dictionary articles, commentaries, sermon notes and theological journal articles related to the topic under discussion."

Be the first to react on this!

Group of Brands