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Practice (4238) (prasso) means to practice but is distinguished from poieo which means "to do", because prasso expresses a course of conduct (even the present tense of poieo expresses a series of repeated acts -- see note by Vine below). The predominant idea conveyed by prasso in its NT uses is to bring about or accomplish an objective through some activity (Ro 1:32, 2:3, Ac 5:35, 26:20, 2Co 5:10, etc). In a few NT uses prasso means to engage in activity or behave in a certain way (Acts 3:17, 17:7). Prasso has an rare meaning of to collect what is due in Lk 3:13, 19:23. Vine adds that prasso... signifies to practise, though this is not always to be pressed. The Apostle John, in his Epistles, uses the continuous tenses (present tense ) of poieō, to indicate a practice, the habit of doing something, e.g., 1Jn 3:4 (cp poieo in 1 Jn 3:8, 9 where the sense of practising is the meaning). John uses prasso twice in the Gospel, Jn 3:20 and Jn 5:29. The Apostle Paul uses prasso in the sense of practising, and the R.V. so renders the word in Ro 1:32; 2:2... Generally speaking, in Paul’s Epistles poieō denotes an action complete in itself, while prassō denotes a habit. The difference is seen in Ro 1:32. Again, poieō stresses the accomplishment, e.g., “perform,” in Ro 4:21; prassō stresses the process leading to the accomplishment, e.g., “doer,” in Ro 2:25. In Ro 2:3 he who does, poieō, the things mentioned, is warned against judging those who practise them, prassō. The distinction in John 3:20, 21 is noticeable: “Every one that does (prassō, practises) ill … he that does (poieō) the truth,” While we cannot draw the regular distinction, that prassō speaks of doing evil things, and poieō of doing good things, yet very often “where the words assume an ethical tinge, there is a tendency to use the verbs with this distinction” (Trench, Syn., § xcvi). (Vine, W E: Vine's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words. 1996. Nelson) Prasso in Romans 1:32 is in the present tense which emphasizes that this is the habitual practice of these individuals! The old adage "practice makes perfect" takes on an ironic twist in Ro 1:32. Their practice makes them perfectly fit for God's righteous judgment! Friberg writes that prasso has the following nuances... (1) transitively (Ed: In grammar, a transitive verb is one which is or may be followed by an object; a verb expressing an action which passes from the agent to an object); (a) of pressing through on an action carry out, do, accomplish (Ac 26.20); (b) predominately with a negative evaluation commit, do (Ac 5.35); (c) as denoting intense preoccupation with something busy oneself with, practice (Ac 19.19); in regard to law practice, observe (RO 2.25); in regard to taxes, interest, toll duties collect, demand, exact (Lk 19.23); (2) intransitively, (Ed: In grammar, an intransitive verb is one which expresses an action or state that is limited to the agent, or in other words, an action that does not pass over to, or operate upon an object) with a qualifying adverb or phrase; (a) to qualify how someone is acting do (Ac 3.17; perhaps 15.29); (b) to denote one’s condition be, be situated, be faring (Ep 6.21; perhaps Ac 15.29) (Friberg, T., Friberg, B., & Miller, N. F. Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament. Baker Academic) Thayer has this entry for prasso (abbreviated) -- 1. “to exercise, practise, be busy with, carry on”: Acts 19:19; to mind one’s own affairs, 1Th 4:11; used of performing the duties of an office, 1Co 9:17. “to undertake to do,” Acts 19:36. 2. “to accomplish, to perform”: has been accomplished, “has taken place,” Acts 26:26; 2Cor 5:10; Ro 9:11, Acts 26:20; add, Romans 7:15,19; Philippians 4:9; to do, i.e. keep the law, 25" class="scriptRef">Ro 2:25; of unworthy acts, “to commit, perpetrate” is more common in reference to bad conduct; Acts 26:9; 2Co 12:21; “this (criminal) deed,” 1Co 5:2, Lk 22:23; Ac 3:17; 5:35; Ro 7:19; such nameless iniquities, Ro 1:32; Ro 2:1-3; Galatians 5:21; Jn 3:20; 5:29;, Lk 23:15; Ac 25:11,25; 26:31; Ro 7:19; 13:4; Lk 23:41; to bring evil upon one, Acts 16:28. 3. “to manage public affairs, transact public business” (Xenophon, Demosthenes, Plutarch); from this use has come a sense met with from Pindar, Aeschylus, Herodotus down, viz. “to exact” tribute, revenue, debts: Luke 3:13 (here R.V. “extort”); το αργυριον, Luke 19:23 (so agere in Latin, cf. the commentators on Suetonius, Vesp. 1; (cf. Winer’s Grammar, sec. 42, 1 a.)). 4. intransitive, “to act”: contrary to a thing, Acts 17:7. 5. from Aeschylus and Herodotus down reflexively, how I do, the state of my affairs, Ephesians 6:21; Acts 15:29 There are 39 uses of prasso in the NT - Lk 3:13; 19:23; 22:23; 23:15, 41; 26.20" class="scriptRef">20" class="scriptRef">Jn 3:20; 5:29; Acts 3:17; 5:35; 15:29; 16:28; 17:7; 19:19, 36; 25.11" class="scriptRef">25:11, 25; 26:9, 20, 26, 31; Ro 1:32; Ro 2:1-note, Ro 2:2-note, Ro 2:3-notet, Ro 2:25-note; Ro 7:15-note, Ro 7:19-note; Ro 9:11-note; Ro 13:4-note; 1Co 5:2; 9:17; 2Co 5:10; 12:21; Gal 5:21-note; Ep 6:21-note; Php 4:9-note; 1Th 4:11-note There are 19 uses of prasso in the Septuagint - Ge 31:28; Jos. 1:7; Job 5:27; 7:20; 24:20; 27:6; 34:21; 35:6; 36:21, 23; Pr. 10:23; 13:10, 16; 14:17; 21:7; 25:28; 26:19; 30:20; Isa. 57:10; Da 6:3; 11:20 ARE WORTHY OF DEATH: axioi thanatou eisin (3PPAI): Regarding the idea of worthy, Middletown Bible suggests... (think of weighing scales being balanced) The penalty must balance the crime, the penalty must weigh as much as the crime. THE CRIME = see verses 29-31 THE PENALTY = "worthy of DEATH" (verse 32 and see also Romans 5:12 end 6:23) Note: The good news of the gospel is that Jesus Christ paid this penalty when He died on the cross -- see Romans 5:6-9. Compare Romans 1:18 with Romans 5:6 as you think about the word "ungodly". Compare Romans 1:18 with Romans 5:9 as you think about the word "wrath". "Copy and paste the address below into your web browser in order to go to the original page which will allow you to access live links related to the material on this page - these links include Scriptures (which can be read in context), Scripture pop-ups on mouse over, and a variety of related resources such as Bible dictionary articles, commentaries, sermon notes and theological journal articles related to the topic under discussion." http://www.preceptaustin.org/romans_132.htm#p

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