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Reign (936) (basileuo from basileús = a king, sovereign, monarch) means to be a king, to rule as a king with the implication of one who has total unfettered authority. Basileuo means to be in control in an absolute manner. To control completely or in an absolute manner. Basileuo is used figuratively by Paul to speak of the dominating quality of something - of death reigning (Ro 5:14), of "the gift of righteousness" reigning (Ro 5:17), of sin reigning in or having predominance over (to exercise the highest influence over) our mortal bodies (Ro 5:21, 6:12 - Wuest = "Here sin is personified, and refers to a nature, the totally depraved nature of the unsaved person, That reigns as an absolute monarch in his being."), of grace reigning (Ro 5:21) Mt 2:22 speaks of the reign of an earthly king (cp Isa 1:1; 6" class="scriptRef">6" class="scriptRef">7:6; 24:23; 30:33; 32:1; 36:1; 37:38; 52:7; Jer 22:11, 15; 23:5; 25:20; 34:5; 37:1; 52:1, 31; Ezek 17:16; 20:33; ) Lk 1:33 speaks of the eschatological reign of Christ over Israel forever. 1Cor 15:25 describes Messiah's reign in the Millennium. Rev 5:10 and Rev 20:4, 6 describe the future reign of believers on earth during the Messiah's Millennial reign (see the specific time phrase "thousand years" in Rev 20:4,6) as the King of kings. In 2Ti 2:12 Paul compounds the verb (sumbasileuo) stating we will reign with Christ if we endure (endurance does not save us - it proves we are saved!) Rev 11:15 (cp Rev 11:17) describes the seventh trumpet sounding which is followed by the proclamation that the Lord and His Messiah will reign forever and ever. In Rev 19:6 after the destruction of the earthly anti-god kingdoms, we will sing praises to the fact that the Lord reigns. Webster' Definition - To possess or exercise sovereign power or authority; to rule; to exercise government, as a king or emperor; or to hold the supreme power. George the third reigned over Great Britain more than fifty years. Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness. Isaiah 32:1. 2. To be predominant; to prevail. 3. To rule; to have superior or uncontrolled dominion. To exercise authority in the manner of a monarch 4. to be predominant or prevalent ?sin reigned in death? Mounce - There are several references in the NT to the reigning of Christians, not in their own right but in the power of Jesus. Jesus has ascended to God's right hand, and we are now sitting with him in the heavenly realms (Eph 1:20; 6" class="scriptRef">2:6; Col 3:1-3). Thus, while it is true that in this present dispensation, sin and death "reign" (Ro 5:14, 17, 21" class="scriptRef">21), if have received the gift of righteousness from the one man Jesus, grace now "reigns" in us to bring us eternal life (Ro 5:15, 21). Thus, Paul is able to exhort, "Do not let sin reign in your mortal body" (Ro 6:12). In the coming millennial reign of Christ, Revelation makes it clear that believers "will reign with him for a thousand years" (Rev 20:4, 6). And when the new heaven and new earth are brought in by God, all his saints "will reign for ever and ever" (Rev 22:5). (Mounce's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old & New Testament Words) Vine's Expository Dictionary - "to reign," is used (I) literally, (a) of God, 17" class="scriptRef">Revelation 11:17; 19:6 , in each of which the aorist tense (in the latter, translated "reigneth") is "ingressive," stressing the point of entrance; (b) of Christ, Luke 1:33; 1 Corinthians 15:25; Revelation 11:15; as rejected by the Jews, Luke 19:14,27; (c) of the saints, hereafter, 1 Corinthians 4:8 (2nd part), where the Apostle, casting a reflection upon the untimely exercise of authority on the part of the church at Corinth, anticipates the due time for it in the future (see No. 2); Revelation 5:10; 20:4 , where the aorist tense is not simply of a "point" character, but "constative," that is, regarding a whole action as having occurred, without distinguishing any steps in its progress (in this instance the aspect is future); Revelation 20:6; 22:5 , (d) of earthly potentates, Matthew 2:22; 1 Timothy 6:15 , where "kings" is, lit., "them that reign;" (II) metaphorically, (a) of believers, Romans 5:17 , where "shall reign in life" indicates the activity of life in fellowship with Christ in His sovereign power, reaching its fullness hereafter; 1 Corinthians 4:8 (1st part), of the carnal pride that laid claim to a power not to be exercised until hereafter; (b) of Divine grace, Romans 5:21; (c) of sin, Romans 5:21; 6:12; (d) of death, Romans 5:14,17 . (Reign - Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words) Complete Biblical Library Greek-English Dictionary - It is used of secular kings (Matthew 2:22), and of divine kings: God (Revelation 11:17), and Christ (Luke 1:33). It is also used of the Holy Spirit by the church fathers and among secular writers it was used of pagan deities....The New Testament uses basileuo to declare God's sovereign authority over all other rulers and powers. Ultimately all rebellion and evil will be overthrown, and God will reign in righteousness unopposed, forever. Reign - International Standard Bible Encyclopedia BASILEUO IN THE NEW TESTAMENT Basileuo - 21x in 18v - Usage: become kings(2), kings(1), reign(12), reigned(4), reigning(1), reigns(1). Matthew 2:22 But when he heard that Archelaus was reigning over Judea in place of his father Herod, he was afraid to go there. Then after being warned by God in a dream, he left for the regions of Galilee, Luke 1:33 and He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and His kingdom will have no end." Luke 19:14 "But his citizens hated him and sent a delegation after him, saying, 'We do not want this man to reign over us.' 27 "But these enemies of mine, who did not want me to reign over them, bring them here and slay them in my presence." Romans 5:14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the likeness of the offense of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come. Romans 5:17 For if by the transgression of the one, death reigned through the one, much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ. Vine on Ro 5:17 - of believers, Rom. 5:17, where "shall reign in life" indicates the activity of life in fellowship with Christ in His sovereign power, reaching its fullness hereafter; 1 Cor. 4:8 (1st part), of the carnal pride that laid claim to a power not to be exercised until hereafter Ro 5:21 so that, as sin reigned in death, even so grace would reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. Wuest - Here sin is personified, and refers to a nature, the totally depraved nature of the unsaved person, That reigns as an absolute monarch in his being. "Unto death" is en toi thanatoi (?? ??? ???????), "in the sphere of death." Alford says that death is that in and by which the reign of sin is exercised and shown. Grace is supplied in superabundance in order that it might reign as king through righteousness, resulting in eternal life, and this eternal life in its application to the believing sinner is made possible through the Lord Jesus' work on the Cross. Romans 6:12 Therefore do not let sin reign in your mortal body so that you obey its lusts, Wuest - Reign" is basileuo "to exercise kingly power." The verb is present imperative with the negative me, which construction forbids the continuance of an action already going on. It is, "Stop allowing the sinful nature to reign as king in your mortal body." The sinful nature is a dethroned monarch. The believer has the responsibility of keeping it from mounting into the throne of his heart, the place which the Lord Jesus should occupy. The believer is well able to do this. His will is free. He has the divine nature and the Holy Spirit to urge him on, and give him the desire and the power to refuse the sinful nature and obey the Word. Paul says, "Order your behavior in the sphere of, by means of, the Spirit, and you will positively not fulfill the desires of the flesh" (Gal. 5:16). Paul says, "Stop allowing the sinful nature to reign as king in your mortal body with a view to obeying it in the sphere of its passionate cravings." (Wuest's word studies from the Greek New Testament) 1 Corinthians 4:8 You are already filled, you have already become rich, you have become kings without us; and indeed, I wish that you had become kings so that we also might reign with you. MacArthur - They were self-satisfied, and therefore were missing the blessing and satisfaction of those who "?hunger and thirst for righteousness?" (?Matt. 5:6?). They were not inclined to say with their former pastor, "?Not that I have already obtained it, or have already become perfect?" (?Phil. 3:12?), because, in their own minds, they had obtained it. They already considered themselves to be reigning, as if their own Millennium had begun. You have become kings without us. Continuing the sarcasm, Paul suggested that they had received their crowns from Christ without (choris, "?without the agency of?"; ?cf.? ?John 1:3?) assistance from him and Apollos, or from any of the other apostles. At that point the sarcasm is modified, and Paul changes from reprimand to reflection. I would indeed that you had become kings so that we also might reign with you. Paul wished that it were really coronation time for all of them. If the Millennium had truly begun, they would have had true glory, shared with them by the Lord, and would truly be reigning with Him-and with Paul and Apollos. But that was not the case. The Corinthian believers were not reigning, and they had no cause at all to glory. (1 Corinthians: Moody Press) 1 Corinthians 15:25 For He must reign until He has put all His enemies under His feet. 1 Timothy 6:15 which He will bring about at the proper time-- He who is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords, Revelation 5:10 "You have made them to be a kingdom and priests to our God; and they will reign upon the earth." NOTE: FOR MORE DETAILED DISCUSSION AND BIBLIOGRAPHY OF REFERENCES QUOTED IN THE COMMENTARY ON THE REVELATION SEE THE FOLLOWING LINK BY DR ANTHONY GARLAND (ONE OF THE BEST, IF NOT THE BEST, LITERAL INTERPRETATIONS OF THIS BOOK EVER COMPILED - HIGHLY RECOMMENDED). A Testimony of Jesus Christ - 3.5 - Revelation 5 - have made us The TR text reads as shown. The MT and NU texts read "have made them." See discussion concerning textual variants in the preceding verse. kings and priests The TR and MT texts read as shown. The NU text reads "a kingdom of priests." A similar variation attends Revelation 1:6 where the TR text reads as shown, but the MT text agrees with the NU text as shown here. See commentary on preceding verse. See commentary on Revelation 1:6. As priests, believers are ministers of the new covenant-not of the letter, but of the Spirit (2Cor. 3:6). They offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God (1Pe. 2:5) while proclaiming His praises (9" class="scriptRef">1Pe. 2:9). They minister to God as priests and share His reign as kings (Dan. 7:27; Rev. 2:26-27; 3:21; Rev. 20:6). "Though believers are currently viewed as a royal priesthood (1Pe. 2:5, 9; cf. Ex. 19:6), this is only preliminary to the fullness of the way they will function alongside Christ in the Millennial Kingdom."86 See commentary on Revelation 2:26, Revelation 3:21, and Revelation 20:6. we shall reign on the earth The TR text reads as shown. The MT and NU texts read "they shall rule." See discussion concerning textual variants in the preceding verse. This is the same promise made earlier to the overcomer in Thyatira and Laodicea. The saints will be given power over the nations and will co-rule with Christ (Rev. 2:26-27). They will sit with Him on His throne (Rev. 3:21). They shall reign (future tense) on the earth in fulfillment of the familiar petition within the "Lord's Prayer": Your kingdom come, Your will be done on earth as it is in heaven (Mat. 6:10). The rule will be upon His throne, not upon the throne of the Father where He currently is seated. This occurs at the Millennial Kingdom following His appearing (2Ti. 4:1; Rev. 20:4-6). The psalm writer said, "those who wait on the LORD, they shall inherit the earth" [emphasis added] (Ps. 37:9b). Jesus said, "Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth" [emphasis added] (Mat. 5:5). There is real, physical land involved in the redemption which pours forth from this book. The taking back of man's dominion over the earth which was lost by Adam (Gen. 1:26, 28), and the restoration of Israel to the Promised Land (Amos 9:13-15).87 See commentary on Revelation 3:21. Some argue that a future earthly kingdom is out-of-step with the spiritual glories of the gospel. Yet it is completely in keeping with the promises found throughout the OT. But strangely enough, some of the very men who are so scornful of the alleged "materialism" of a Millennial Kingdom, are the most insistent that the Church today must make effective in society what they call the social and moral ideals of the present kingdom of God. Thus, it is our duty to vote the right ticket politically, give to the Red Cross, help the Boy Scouts, support the United Nations, endow hospitals, etc. But if a "spiritual" kingdom can and should produce such effects at the present time through the very imperfect agency of sinful men, why cannot the same thing be true in larger measure in the coming age when the rule of God will be mediated more perfectly and powerfully through the Eternal Son personally present among men as the Mediatorial King? ... The reasoning of such men at times seems very curious. If physicians conquer disease, if scientists eliminate certain physical hazards, if by legislation governments improve the quality of human existence, if wise statesmen succeed in preventing a war, etc.,-these things are often cited as evidence of the progress of a present Kingdom of God. But if the Lord Jesus Christ Himself returns to earth in person to accomplish these same things, more perfectly and universally, then we are told that such a kingdom would be "carnal."88 Some people tell us that it is quite too low and coarse a thing to think of the earth in connection with the final bliss of the saints. They preach that we do but degrade and pervert the exalted things of holy Scripture, when we hint the declaration of the wise man, that "the earth endureth forever," and that over it the glorious and everlasting kingdom of Christ and His saints, is to be established in literal reality. But if the ransomed in heaven, with golden crowns upon their brows, kneeling at the feet of the Lamb, before the very throne of God, and with the prayers of all the saints, and the predictions of all the prophets in their hands, could sing of it as one of the elements of their loftiest hopes and joys, I beg to turn a deaf ear to the surly cry of "carnal"-"sensual"-"unspiritual"-which some would turn me from "the blessed hope." Shall the saints in glory shout "We shall reign on the earth," and we be accounted heretics for believing that they knew what they were saying?89 Revelation 11:15 Then the seventh angel sounded; and there were loud voices in heaven, saying, "The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of His Christ; and He will reign forever and ever." A Testimony of Jesus Christ - 3.11 - Revelation 11 - seventh angel sounded - The seventh angel sounds the seventh trumpet (Rev. 8:2). This last of the seven trumpets is not to be confused with the "last trump" which attends the Rapture.103 This cannot be what is meant by the last trump [1Cor. 15:52]; at the time that I Corinthians was written, John had not written Revelation. The Corinthians would not have had any knowledge of the seven trumpets. The only knowledge they would have of trumpets are those spoken of in the Old Testament, especially those of the Feast of Trumpets. The last trump refers to the Feast of Trumpets and the Jewish practice of blowing trumpets at this feast each year. During the ceremony there are a series of short trumpet sounds concluding with one long trumpet blast which is called the tekiah gedolah, the great trumpet blast. This is what Paul means by the last trump.104 This seventh trumpet is the last of this series of seven, but not the last absolutely, and is not to be confused with the "last trump" of 1Cor. 15:52. Chronologically, the trumpet of Mat. 24:31 must follow this seventh trumpet of Revelation, for it occurs after the Tribulation, at the open manifestation of Christ's Second Advent (Mat. 24:30), which in the book of Revelation is recorded in 19.11-Rev.19.16" class="scriptRef">Rev. 19:11-16, which is after the time expressed here. In the book of Revelation the seventh trumpet is never called "last" (Rev. 1:11, 17; 2:8, 19; 15:1. 21:9; 22:13).105 The seventh trumpet covers an extended period of time, thus distinguishing it from the instantaneous ("in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye") event of the "last trumpet." Instead of calling for the moment of the Rapture of the church, as the "last trumpet" does, the seventh trumpet calls for prolonged waves of judgment on the ungodly. It does not parallel the trumpet of 1 Corinthians 15:52, but does parallel the trumpet of Joel 2:1-2: "Blow a trumpet in Zion, and sound an alarm on My holy mountain! Let all the inhabitants of the land tremble, for the day of the Lord is coming; surely it is near, a day of darkness and gloom, a day of clouds and thick darkness."106 The seventh trumpet is typified by the seven trumpets of the conquest of Jericho by Joshua. kingdoms of this world - MT and NU texts have kingdom (singular).107 The use of the singular term kingdom of the world instead of the plural "kingdoms" introduces an important truth. All of the world's diverse national, political, social, cultural, linguistic, and religious groups are in reality one kingdom under one king. That king is known in Scripture by many names and titles, including the accuser (Rev. 12:10), the adversary (1 Pet. 5:8), Beelzebul (Mat. 12:24), Belial (2Cor. 6:15), the dragon (Rev. 12:3, 7, 9), the "evil one" (John 17:15), the god of this world (2Cor. 4:4), the prince of the power of the air (Eph. 2:2), the roaring lion (1Pe. 5:8), the ruler of the demons (Mark 3:22), the ruler of this world (John 12:31), the serpent of old (Rev. 12:9; 20:2), the tempter (1Th. 3:5), and, most commonly, the devil (Mat. 4:1) and Satan (1Ti. 5:15).108 The sounding of the seventh trumpet "proclaims the coming coronation of earth's rightful king, the answer to the prayer of the ages, 'thy kingdom come' [Mat. 6:10]."109 The seventh trumpet is typified by Zadok's blowing of the horn when Solomon was anointed as King (1K. 1:39). The coming of the kingdom of God is connected with the overthrow of Satan (Rev. 12:10) and involves the reclamation of the earth as the Lord's, but now, Satan is "god of this age" (Mat. 4:8-9; 2Cor. 4:4). See commentary on Revelation 20:2. The sounding of the seventh trumpet signals God's answer to the prayer, "Your kingdom come. Your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven" (Mat. 6:10). That answer sweeps through chapters 12-22 as God finishes His mighty work of reclaiming creation from the usurper, Satan.110 have become - [egeneto] , singular, prophetic aorist. The event is so certain in the sounding of the seventh angel that it is treated as if already past. However, the kingdom will not have arrived in totality until all seven bowl judgments are poured forth (Rev. 16:17) and the King Himself returns to earth to defeat the armies of the nations (Isa. 63:1-6; Zec. 12:1-9; 14:1-8; Rev. 19:11-21). That day is described by many passages of which a small sample appears below: All the ends of the world shall remember and turn to the Lord, and all the families of the nations shall worship before You. For the kingdom is the Lord's, and He rules over the nations. (Ps. 22:27-28). He shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth. Those who dwell in the wilderness will bow before Him, and His enemies will lick the dust. The kings of Tarshish and of the isles will bring presents; the kings of Sheba and Seba will offer gifts. Yes, all kings shall fall down before Him; all nations shall serve Him. (Ps. 72:8-11) Of the increase of His government and peace There will be no end, upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, to order it and establish it with judgment and justice from that time forward, even forever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this. (Isa. 9:7) And in the days of these kings the God of heaven will set up a kingdom which shall never be destroyed; and the kingdom shall not be left to other people; it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand forever. (Dan. 2:44) Then to Him was given dominion and glory and a kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve Him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom the one Which shall not be destroyed. (Dan. 7:14) And the LORD shall be King over all the earth. In that day it shall be-"The LORD is one," and His name one. All the land shall be turned into a plain from Geba to Rimmon south of Jerusalem. Jerusalem shall be raised up and inhabited in her place from Benjamin's Gate to the place of the First Gate and the Corner Gate, and from the Tower of Hananeel to the king's winepresses. The people shall dwell in it; and no longer shall there be utter destruction, but Jerusalem shall be safely inhabited. (Zec. 14:9-11) He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Highest; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David. And He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of His kingdom there will be no end. (Luke 1:32-33) Not one of the above passages finds literal fulfillment in the present day Church as the adherents of Replacement Theology, Dominion Theology, and Covenant Theology claim because the sounding of the seventh trumpet remains future to our time. These passages do not speak of an invisible spiritual kingdom, but a visible earthly kingdom-the Millennial Kingdom of Revelation 20:4-6. See The Arrival of God's Kingdom.111 All attempts to equate this glorious reign of Christ over the whole earth with any past event or with the church is utterly foreign and contradictory to the clear eschatological teaching of Scripture, including especially this passage. There is no way this text can be fulfilled except by the universal reign of Jesus Christ over the whole earth-as the prophets had for so long predicted.112 His Christ Christ is [Christou] , an appellative the Anointed One, the Messiah.113 This speaks of His office as the promised Anointed One and is a direct allusion to the Father's pronouncement concerning the Son: "Why do the nations rage and the people plot a vain thing? The kings of the earth set themselves and the rulers take counsel together against the LORD and His Anointed, saying, 'Let us break Their bonds in pieces and cast away Their cords from us.' " [emphasis added] (Ps. 2:1-2). His Anointed is ??????? [mesîh?ô] , the anointed of His and is a direct parallel to tou Christou autou , the Christ of His. The seventh trumpet proclaims the impending fulfillment of Psalm 2, especially verses 7-9 which will be realized in the pouring forth of the final seven bowls: "I will declare the decree: the LORD has said to Me, 'You are My Son, today I have begotten You. Ask of Me, and I will give You The nations for Your inheritance, and the ends of the earth for Your possession. You shall break them with a rod of iron; You shall dash them to pieces like a potter's vessel.' " (Ps. 2:7-9) forever and ever - eis tous aionas ton aionon , into the ages of the ages. His kingdom is without end (18" class="scriptRef">Ex. 15:18; Ps. 10:16; 145:13; Isa. 9:7; Dan. 2:44; 4:3; 6:26; 7:14, 18, 27; Mic. 4:7; Luke 1:33; 1Ti. 1:17; 2Pe. 1:11; Rev. 11:15). Revelation 11:17 saying, "We give You thanks, O Lord God, the Almighty, who are and who were, because You have taken Your great power and have begun to reign. Revelation 19:6 Then I heard something like the voice of a great multitude and like the sound of many waters and like the sound of mighty peals of thunder, saying, "Hallelujah! For the Lord our God, the Almighty, reigns. Robertson - Probably ingressive prophetic aorist, "God became king" in fulness of power on earth with the fall of the world power. A Testimony of Jesus Christ - 3.19 - Revelation 19 the voice of a great multitude See commentary on Revelation 19:1. as the sound of many waters This phrase describes the roar which attends heavenly voices and noises of great magnitude (Eze. 1:24; 43:2). John heard Christ's voice as the "sound of many waters" (Rev. 1:15). as the sound of mighty thunderings The voice of mighty heavenly creatures (Rev. 6:1; 10:3-4) and the sound of the multitude of voices is like that of powerful thunder. The heavenly multitude which attended the song of the 144,000 redeemed from among Israel also was like loud thunder (Rev. 14:2). The loudest electronic amplification system of any earthly praise will dwindle to insignificance in comparison to the thunderous praise from heaven at the accomplishment of God in His omnipotence! Alleluia! See commentary on Revelation 19:1. Imagine the largest stadium in the world, filled to overflowing with a thundering crowd. Now multiply that by one thousand, ten thousand, even myriad of myriads (Rev. 5:11)! Gather all the world's instruments together with all the heavenly instruments-instruments and sounds and voices of unimaginable purity, power, and magnificence. On command, they all shout forth: ALLELUIA! Surely, in the spiritual realm, this thunderous praise is already beginning to erode the strength of the dragon and his unclean spirits who, at this very hour, are gathering the kings of the earth to their impending slaughter below (Rev. 16:13-14). the Lord God Omnipotent reigns Omnipotent is [pantokrator] . See commentary on Revelation 1:8. God is omnipotent, all-powerful: none of His purposes can be withheld or frustrated. "I know that You can do everything, and that no purpose of Yours can be withheld from You" (Job 42:2). "Ah, Lord GOD! Behold, You have made the heavens and the earth by Your great power and outstretched arm. There is nothing too hard for You" (Jer. 32:17). Jesus said, "With God all things are possible" (Mat. 19:26b). Who has measured the waters in the hollow of His hand, measured heaven with a span and calculated the dust of the earth in a measure? Weighed the mountains in scales and the hills in a balance? Who has directed the Spirit of the LORD, or as His counselor has taught Him? With whom did He take counsel, and who instructed Him, and taught Him in the path of justice? Who taught Him knowledge, and showed Him the way of understanding? Behold, the nations are as a drop in a bucket, and are counted as the small dust on the scales; look, He lifts up the isles as a very little thing. (Isa. 40:12-15) Reigns is [ebasileusen] : "rule over, control completely."5 "The aorist [ebasileusen] is proleptic and ingressive. Looking back from the future point when the climactic battle of Rev. 19:19-21 is complete, the verb tense sees God's assumption of power in reigning over the earth."6 In one sense, God has and always will reign supreme. His rule over all creation has never been, nor ever will be in question: "Your throne is established from of old" (Ps. 93:2a), "The LORD reigns: let the peoples tremble! . . . He is high above all the peoples" (Ps. 99:1a-2). In another sense, the physical reign of God on earth has been corrupted by fallen men and usurped by Satan. It is in this sense-the mediatorial rule of God on earth through men-that events are now rapidly moving to bring God's kingdom to earth. Our Father in heaven. Hallowed be Your name. Your kingdom come. Your will be done. On earth as it is in heaven. (Mat. 6:9b-10). [emphasis added] The worship of the multitude restates the announcement which attended the sounding of the seventh trumpet: "The kingdoms of this world have become the kingdoms of our Lord and His Christ, and He shall reign forever and ever!" (Rev. 11:15). In the destruction of Babylon, the world is but a hair-breadth away from the institution of God's literal earthly kingdom. All that remains is the destruction of the Beast and the kings of the earth at the Campaign of Armageddon (Rev. 19:17-21). Revelation 20:4 Then I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them. And I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded because of their testimony of Jesus and because of the word of God, and those who had not worshiped the beast or his image, and had not received the mark on their forehead and on their hand; and they came to life and reigned with Christ for a thousand years. A Testimony of Jesus Christ - 3.20 - Revelation 20 And I saw thrones, and they sat on them Previously, it was the twenty-four elders who were seen sitting on thrones (Rev. 4:4). Here, the throne-sitters are resurrected men which supports our conclusion that the twenty-four elders are not angels, but resurrected men who also sit on thrones. See commentary on Revelation 4:4. Now the only "Company of Believers" that we see sitting on Thrones are the "Four and Twenty Elders" of Revelation 4:4-5. These as we have seen stand for the Church, and were resurrected or caught out before "The Tribulation," and are the "Harvest" of which Christ and those who rose at the time of His Resurrection were the "First Fruits."19 "Surely the sitters on these thrones are those to whom this implied judicio-regal authority is everywhere promised."20 They are the overcomers who obtained the promises Jesus gave to the church at Thyatira and Laodicea: "And he who overcomes, and keeps My works until the end, to him I will give power over the nations-He shall rule them with a rod of iron: they shall be dashed to pieces like the potter's vessels" (Rev. 2:26-27), "To him who overcomes I will grant to sit with Me on My throne, as I also overcame and sat down with My Father on His throne" (Rev. 3:21). See commentary on Revelation 2:26 and Revelation 3:21. See Millennial Reign of the Saints. Here we begin to see what God has gained out of the whole trail of earth history. Man, made a little lower than the angels, is raised through the redemptive death of the Lord who also was willing to be made lower than the angels (Heb. 2:7, 9), to a higher position. In salvation we are not lifted back to the level from which Adam fell, but higher. We are not lifted to the level of the angels, but higher. We are lifted above all the principalities and powers to the very throne of Heaven.21 and judgment was given to them These both reign and judge during the Millennial Kingdom. See Judgment by the Saints. These seated on thrones are from two major resurrection events, both of which are part of the category known as the first resurrection: OT Saints - Those who came to faith and died prior to the baptizing work of the Spirit which began on the Day of Pentecost. These are the OT saints, many of whom are Jews, and who were resurrected after Jacob's Trouble and the Great Tribulation (Dan. 12:2; Isa. 26:19).22 Church Saints - Those who came to faith and lived beyond the Day of Pentecost to be baptized by the Spirit into the body of Christ, the Church. These were resurrected or translated at the Rapture of the Church (John 14:3; 1Cor. 15:51; 1Th. 4:13-18). See Rapture. See Order of Resurrection. Then I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded Souls is [psychas] . "These souls, once disembodied (Rev. 6:9), but here clearly resurrected, for they live and reign with Christ a thousand years. Thus, this is the figure of speech Metonymy of the Cause, whereby 'soul' is put for the person. . . . The use of 'soul' here provides no basis for asserting a spiritual, as opposed to a literal, reign or resurrection."23 It is also possible that John first describes them as souls because as he watches in the vision they come to life (are joined with their resurrected bodies). Who had been beheaded is [pepelekismenon] , perfect tense: the ones having been beheaded with an axe.24 They were martyred and are now identified as having been faithful unto death (Rev. 2:10). At the opening of the fifth seal, John saw those who had been slain "for the word of God and for the testimony which they held" (Rev. 6:9). Elsewhere, John was shown a great multitude who came out of the Great Tribulation, most of whom were probably martyrs (Rev. 7:13-14). The guillotine in revolutionary France was a revival of the mode of capital punishment of pagan imperial Rome. Paul was beheaded [as was John the Baptist, Mat. 14:8; Mark 6:24-15], and no doubt shall share the first resurrection, in accordance with his prayer that he "might attain unto the resurrection from out of the rest of the dead" (Greek, "exanastasis"). The above facts may account for the specification of this particular kind of punishment.25 for their witness to Jesus and for the word of God Witness to Jesus is [martyrian Iesou] , elsewhere translated the testimony of Jesus (Rev. 1:2, 9; 12:17; 19:10). John "bore witness to the word of God, and to the testimony of Jesus Christ" which included all the things he saw in his vision and are recorded in this book (Rev. 1:2). See commentary on Revelation 1:2 and Revelation 19:10. who had not worshiped the beast or his image Who had not worshiped is [kai hoitines ou prosekynesan] : and all the ones who not worshiped. The Beast arose from the sea, having recovered from a deadly wound to the acclaim and worship of the world (Rev. 13:4). The earth dwellers, under the urging of the False Prophet, constructed an image of the Beast which was worshiped under penalty of death (Rev. 13:14-16). These, having faith and being protected from deception by the power of the Holy Spirit, had not been swayed by the great deception of their age. They had rejected worship of both the Beast and His image. As a result, they suffered martyrdom. In their physical death, having held true to their testimony (Rev. 12:11), they had escaped eternal torment (Rev. 14:9-11) which is the second death (Rev. 2:11; 20:6). Prior to the bowl judgments, John saw those from among them who had already died, who had "victory over the beast, over his image and over his mark and over the number of his name" singing the song of Moses and the song of the Lamb (Rev. 15:2-4). The grammar of the Greek provides the possibility that a third group is described beyond those sitting on thrones and those who had been beheaded:26 John describes three groups of resurrected believers (they "came to life") in Rev. 20:4. First, the thrones represent believers of the pre-tribulation era (as the twenty-four elders sat on their thrones before the tribulation began-Rev. 4:4); second, the souls of those who will be martyred in the first half of the tribulation; and third, those who will refuse to worship the Beast in the second half of the tribulation.27 The three groups are not mutually exclusive, for the second two are probably a subset from among the first: That martyrs and the faithful ones under the Beast are not different parties from the sitters on the thrones, but special classes specifically included. A somewhat parallel presentation occurs in Revelation 1:7, where it is said of the Saviour at his great Epiphany, that "every eye shall see him, and they which pierced him." The meaning is not that "they which pierced him" for a separate class apart from "every eye," but that even those who slew Christ shall be among those denoted by "every eye," and that they too shall look upon him.28 In any case, these cannot include the living saints who survive the Tribulation until the Second Coming of Christ and enter the Millennial Kingdom in their natural bodies, because these have previously died and are resurrected. and had not received his mark on their foreheads or on their hands Their hands is [ten cheira auton] : the hand [singular] of them. Hands is plural in the same sense as foreheads, many people with one [right] hand each that could have received the mark.29 Their refusal of the mark of the Beast meant they could neither buy nor sell (Rev. 13:17). Their only means of survival was by supernatural assistance, living off the land, or through the black market. Thus, they demonstrated their faith by their works and lived under extreme duress in order to remain true to their faith in God. they lived and reigned with Christ for a thousand years They lived is [ezesan] , used of "dead persons who return to life, become alive again."30 It is an ingressive aorist: they came to life and began to live.31 The same word is used by Christ to describe His own resurrection: "These things says the First and the Last, who was dead, and came to life [ezesen] )" (Rev. 2:8). It describes the revival of the Beast from physical death: "And he [the False Prophet] deceives those who dwell on the earth by those signs which he was granted to do in the sight of the beast, telling those who dwell on the earth to make an image to the beast who was wounded by the sword and lived [ezesen] )" (Rev. 13:14). The reason they come to life is because Christ overcame death (Rev. 1:18; 2:8). "For as the Father raises the dead and gives life to them, even so the Son gives life to whom He will" (John 5:21). "A little while longer and the world will see Me no more, but you will see Me. Because I live, you will live also" (John 14:19). "This is a faithful saying: For if we died with Him, We shall also live with Him" (2Ti. 2:11). Through identification by faith in Jesus Christ, they obtained resurrection to life. In one of the most significant scenes in the gospels, Jesus makes a dramatic claim: Jesus said to her, "Your brother will rise again." Martha said to Him, "I know that he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day." Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in Me, though he may die, he shall live." (John 11:23-25) [emphasis added] Their persecutors, the Beast worshipers, had saved their own physical lives for a time, but ultimately lost eternal life: "He who finds his life will lose it, and he who loses his life for My sake will find it" (Mat. 10:39). This is a resurrection to receive a glorified body never to die again. It differs from those who were raised from the dead, but then died again (1K. 17:22; Luke 7:15; 8:54; John 11:43-44): Jesus answered and said to them, "The sons of this age marry and are given in marriage. But those who are counted worthy to attain that age, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry nor are given in marriage; nor can they die anymore, for they are equal to the angels and are sons of God, being sons of the resurrection." (Luke 20:34-36) Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; nor does corruption inherit incorruption. Behold, I tell you a mystery: We shall not all sleep, but we shall be changed- in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality. (1Cor. 15:50-53) Those who claim we are already in the time which John describes must find a different way of understanding this verse because the physical resurrection of the believing dead has obviously not yet transpired. The most frequent way to explain away the future force of the passage and move it into the past is to explain this resurrection as being a spiritual regeneration by which people come to faith-having previously been spiritually dead. From at least the time of Augustine, the first resurrection was understood as a regeneration of the soul and the second resurrection as the general physical, bodily resurrection of the just and unjust (City of God 20.9-10). It must, however, be insisted that it is quite weak exegesis to make the first resurrection spiritual and the second one physical, unless the text itself clearly indicates this change, which it does not.32 But this cannot be a spiritual resurrection because these are said to have previously died because of their faith! The very faith which the amillennialist now claims is attained at their "resurrection": It seems absurd to press this passage into a spiritual or moral conversion in the face of the beheading which was endured for the Word, since it is virtually affirming that the sinner, previous to his conversion, suffers death because of his witnessing for Jesus; that the unregenerated man endures a beheading for his unswerving devotion to the truth; and then, after such an exhibition of love, he is resurrected, i.e., converted, etc. . . . The persons who have part in this resurrection are such as were converted to the truth before this death.33 This is the future physical resurrection of the just which the early Church Father Irenaeus described: "For, behold," says Isaiah, "the day of the Lord cometh past remedy, full of fury and wrath, to lay waste the city of the earth, and to root sinners out of it." And again he says, "Let him be taken away, that he behold not the glory of God." And when these things are done, he says, "God will remove men far away, and those that are left shall multiply in the earth. And they shall build houses, and shall inhabit them themselves: and plant vineyards, and eat of them themselves." For all these and other words were unquestionably spoken in reference to the resurrection of the just, which takes place after the coming of Antichrist, and the destruction of all nations under his rule; in [the times of] which [resurrection] the righteous shall reign in the earth, waxing stronger by the sight of the Lord: and through Him they shall become accustomed to partake in the glory of God the Father, and shall enjoy in the kingdom intercourse and communion with the holy angels, and union with spiritual beings; and [with respect to] those whom the Lord shall find in the flesh, awaiting Him from heaven, and who have suffered tribulation, as well as escaped the hands of the Wicked one.34 Their coming to life and reigning with Christ is a future event which is the fulfillment of the prayers of the saints throughout history that God would bring His kingdom to earth (Mat. 6:10). See The Arrival of God's Kingdom. This is the beginning of the literal kingdom on earth which smashes all other earthly kingdoms and fills the globe. See Nebuchadnezzar's Dream and Daniel's Vision. See Millennial Kingdom. Both Jesus and the saints rule in the kingdom. See Millennial Reign of Messiah. See Millennial Reign of the Saints. At the sounding of the seventh trumpet, it was announced that "He shall reign forever and ever" (Rev. 11:15). The reign of Christ and the saints eventually extends beyond the thousand years and on into the eternal state (Rev. 22:5). Rev 20:6- note Blessed and holy is the one who has a part in the first resurrection; over these the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ and will reign with Him for a thousand years. Revelation 22:5 And there will no longer be any night; and they will not have need of the light of a lamp nor the light of the sun, because the Lord God will illumine them; and they will reign forever and ever. A Testimony of Jesus Christ - 3.22 - Revelation 22 There shall be no night there The NU text and some manuscripts in the line of the MT text omit there implying the general absence of darkness, whether in the city or elsewhere. See commentary on Revelation 21:23. They need no lamp nor light of the sun, for the Lord God gives them light Gives them light is [photisei ep autous] , present tense: He is shining upon them. Those within the vicinity of the New Jerusalem will receive the radiant light of God's glory. "This is the message which we have heard from Him and declare to you, that God is light and in Him is no darkness at all" (1Jn. 1:5). They will have no need of the sun, although the sun may still be present in the eternal state. See commentary on Revelation 21:23. they shall reign forever and ever Their initial reign is for one thousand years during the Millennial Kingdom (Rev. 20:4-6). See Millennial Reign of the Saints. After the throne of the Son is merged with the Father, the saints continue to co-reign with Him in eternity. In Daniel's night vision, the angel explained, "the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdom, and possess the kingdom forever, even forever and ever" (Dan. 7:18). Jesus told the church at Thyatira that the overcomer would co-rule with Him (Rev. 2:27). See commentary on Revelation 2:27. He also told the church at Laodicea that the overcomer would sit with Him on His throne (Rev. 3:21). See commentary on Revelation 3:21. BASILEUO IN THE SEPTUAGINT Basileuo - 3" class="scriptRef">3.5" class="scriptRef">5.27" class="scriptRef">27" class="scriptRef">2716.8" class="scriptRef">8" class="scriptRef">8.9" class="scriptRef">9v in non-apocryphal Septuagint - 36.31" class="scriptRef">Ge 36:31-31; 11" class="scriptRef">11" class="scriptRef">11.37" class="scriptRef">37.8" class="scriptRef">37:8; 15.5" class="scriptRef">5.18" class="scriptRef">Ex 15:18; 13" class="scriptRef">13" class="scriptRef">13.10" class="scriptRef">10" class="scriptRef">Josh 13:10, 12" class="scriptRef">12.12" class="scriptRef">12" class="scriptRef">12" class="scriptRef">12; Jdg 4:2; 9:6, 8, 10, 12, 14-Judg.9.16" class="scriptRef">14-16, 18; 1Sa 8:7, 9, 11" class="scriptRef">11, 22; 11:12; 12:1, 12, 14; 15:11, 35-1Sam.16.1" class="scriptRef">35; 16:1; 23.17" class="scriptRef">17" class="scriptRef">23:17; 24" class="scriptRef">24" class="scriptRef">24" class="scriptRef">24.20" class="scriptRef">20" class="scriptRef">20" class="scriptRef">24:20; 27:5; 2Sa 2:4, 9-11; 3:17, 21" class="scriptRef">21" class="scriptRef">21; 5:4-5; 8:15; 10:1; 15:10; 16:8; 19:22; 1Kgs 1:5, 11, 13, 138" class="scriptRef">7f, 24, 30" class="scriptRef">30, 35, 43; 2:11; 4:1, 20; 5:17; 25" class="scriptRef">25" class="scriptRef">11:25, 37, 42f; 12:1, 20, 24; 14:21, 25, 31; 15:1f, 8-10, 24f, 28-1Kgs.15.34" class="scriptRef">28f, 33; 16:6, 8, 10f, 15f, 21ff, 28f; 22:40-42, 50f; 2Kgs 1:18; 3:1, 27; 8:13, 15-17, 20, 26" class="scriptRef">24-26; 9:13, 29; 10:5, 35f; 11:3, 12, 21; 12:1, 21; 13:1, 9f, 24; 14:1f, 16, 21, 23, 29; 15:1f, 5, 7f, 10, 13, 17, 22f, 25, 27, 30, 32f, 38; 16:1f, 20; 17:1, 21; 18:1f; 19:37; 20:21; 21:1, 18f, 24, 26; 22:1; 23:30f, 33f, 36; 24:6, 8, 17f; 1Chr 1:44-46; 3:4; 11:10; 12:31, 38; 16:31; 18:14; 19:1; 23:1; 29:22, 26, 28; 2Chr 1:8f, 11, 13; 9:30f; 10:1, 17; 11:22; 12:13, 16; 13:1f; 14:1; 17:1; 20:31; 21:1, 5, 8, 20; 22:1f, 12; 23:3, 11; 24:1, 27; 25:1; 26:1, 3, 23; 27:1, 9; 28:1, 27; 29:1; 32:33; 33:1, 20f, 25; 34:1; 36:2, 5, 8-10; Esther 1:1, 3, 11; 2:4; 4:14; 10:3; Job 34:30; 42:17; Ps 10:16; 45:4; 47:8; 93:1; 96:10; 97:1; 99:1; 146:10; Pr 1:1; 8:15; 30:22; Eccl 4:14; Isa 1:1; 7:6; 24:23; 30:33; 32:1; 36:1; 37:38; 52:7; Jer 22:11, 15; 23:5; 25:20; 34:5; 37:1; 52:1, 31; Ezek 17:16; 20:33; Dan 7:1, 27; 8:1; 9:1; Hos 8:4; Mic 4:7 Ex 15:18 "The LORD shall reign forever and ever." Ps 10:16 The LORD is King forever and ever; Nations have perished from His land. Ps 47:8 God reigns over the nations, God sits on His holy throne. Ps 93:1 The LORD reigns, He is clothed with majesty; The LORD has clothed and girded Himself with strength; Indeed, the world is firmly established, it will not be moved. Ps 96:10 Say among the nations, "The LORD reigns; Indeed, the world is firmly established, it will not be moved; He will judge the peoples with equity." Ps 97:1 The LORD reigns; let the earth rejoice; Let the many islands be glad. Ps 99:1 The LORD reigns, let the peoples tremble; He is enthroned [above] the cherubim, let the earth shake! Ps 146:10 The LORD will reign forever, Thy God, O Zion, to all generations. Praise the LORD! Pr 8:15 "By me kings reign, And rulers decree justice. Isa 24:23 Then the moon will be abashed and the sun ashamed, For the LORD of hosts will reign on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem, And [His] glory will be before His elders. Isa 32:1 Behold, a king will reign righteously, And princes will rule justly. Isa 52:7 How lovely on the mountains Are the feet of him who brings good news, Who announces peace And brings good news of happiness, Who announces salvation, [And] says to Zion, "Your God reigns!" Jeremiah 23:5 (Prophecy of Messiah's future reign) "Behold, the (days are coming," declares the LORD, "When I will raise up for David a righteous Branch; And He will reign as king and act wisely And do justice and righteousness in the land. Ezek 20:33 (Some associate this prophecy fulfilled at beginning of the Millennium - when the remnant of Israel who is saved/delivered will enter the Messianic Kingdom) "As I live," declares the Lord GOD, "surely with a mighty hand and with an outstretched arm and with wrath poured out, I shall be king over you. Mic 4:7 (Prophetic passage) "I will make the lame a remnant, And the outcasts a strong nation, And the LORD will reign over them in Mount Zion From now on and forever. Complete Biblical Library Greek-English Dictionary on uses in the Classic Greek and Septuagint - This verb is consistently understood to mean "to rule, reign" in all kinds of Greek writing. It has an additional secondary meaning with the causative sense of "make or appoint as king." This meaning appears in the Septuagint, where basileuo translates four Hebrew terms, including various forms of these and most especially malakh. For example, it refers to political kings who rule (Genesis 36:31), or to the Lord who reigns forever and ever (Exodus 15:18).

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