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Just (1342) (dikaios from dike = right, just) defines that which is in accordance with high standards of rectitude. It is that which is in right relation to another and so in reference to persons defines the one who is morally and ethically righteous, upright or just Steven Cole... This word sometimes means righteous, but in this context, it probably refers to a man who is fair and equitable in his dealings with others. He is not partial to the wealthy and he doesn’t ignore or belittle the poor. He is able to weigh the facts of a matter and make impartial decisions based on the evidence.. (Read the full sermon) Dikaios is used 79 times in NT: 19" class="scriptRef">Mt. 1:19; 5:45; 9:13; 10:41; 17" class="scriptRef">13:17, 43, 49; 20:4; 29" class="scriptRef">23:28, 29, 35; 25:37, 46; 27:19; Mk. 2:17; 6:20; Luke 1:6, 17; 2:25; 5:32; 12.57" class="scriptRef">12:57; 14:14; 15:7; 18.9" class="scriptRef">18:9; 20:20; 23:47, 50; Jn 5:30; 7:24; 17:25; Acts 3:14; 4:19; 7:52; 10:22; 22:14; 24:15; Ro 1:17; 2:13; 3:10, 26; 5:7, 19; 7:12; Gal 3:11; Ep 6:1; Phil. 1:7; 4:8; Col 4:1; 2Th 1:5-6; 1Ti 1:9; 2Ti 4:8; Titus 1:8; Heb 10:38; 11:4; 12:23; James 5:6, 16; 1Pe 3:12, 18; 4:18 2Pe 1:13; 2:7, 8; 1Jn 1:9; 2:1, 29; 3:7, 12; Re 15:3; 16:5, 7; 19:2; 22:11. Dikaios is translated as innocent(1), just(6), justice(1), right(6), righteous(45), righteous man(8), righteous Man(1), righteous man's(1), righteous men(2), righteous one(1), Righteous One(3), righteous persons(1), what is right(1), who is righteous(1). There are 216.13" class="scriptRef">13.18.11" class="scriptRef">11" class="scriptRef">11" class="scriptRef">11.3" class="scriptRef">328.21" class="scriptRef">21.12" class="scriptRef">12.18.10" class="scriptRef">10" class="scriptRef">10.11" class="scriptRef">11.5" class="scriptRef">5.6.7" class="scriptRef">17.7" class="scriptRef">7" class="scriptRef">7" class="scriptRef">7" class="scriptRef">7" class="scriptRef">77 uses of dikaios in the Septuagint (LXX) (9" class="scriptRef">9" class="scriptRef">Gen. 6:9; 7:1; 23" class="scriptRef">23-Gen.18.26" class="scriptRef">26" class="scriptRef">26" class="scriptRef">18:23, 4.24" class="scriptRef">24, 25" class="scriptRef">25" class="scriptRef">25, 26, 28" class="scriptRef">28" class="scriptRef">28; 20" class="scriptRef">20" class="scriptRef">20" class="scriptRef">20.4" class="scriptRef">20:4; Ex 9:27; 21" class="scriptRef">21" class="scriptRef">21" class="scriptRef">18:21; 23:7, 8; 19" class="scriptRef">19.36" class="scriptRef">Lev 19:36; 10" class="scriptRef">10" class="scriptRef">Nu 23:10; Deut. 4:8; 16:18, 19, 20; 25:1, 15" class="scriptRef">15" class="scriptRef">15" class="scriptRef">15; 32" class="scriptRef">32.4" class="scriptRef">32:4; 1Sa 2:2, 9; 17" class="scriptRef">17" class="scriptRef">17" class="scriptRef">17" class="scriptRef">17" class="scriptRef">24:17; 11" class="scriptRef">11" class="scriptRef">2Sa 4:11; 1 Ki. 2:32; 8:32; 2Ki. 10:9; 2Chr 6:23; 12:6; Ezr 9:15; Neh 9:8, 33" class="scriptRef">33; Esther 1:1; 4:17; 8:12; Job 1:1; 5:5; 6:29; 8:3; 9:2, 15, 20, 23; 10:15; 11:2; 12:4; 13.18" class="scriptRef">13:18; 15:14; 17:8; 22:19; 24:4, 11; 25:4; 27:5, 17; 28:4; 31" class="scriptRef">31.6" class="scriptRef">31:6; 32:1, 2; 33:12; 34:5, 10, 17; 35:2, 7; 36:3, 7, 10, 17; 37:23; 40:8; Ps. 1:5, 6; 2:12; 5:12; 7:9, 11; 11:3, 5, 7; 14:5; 31:18; 32:11; 33:1; 34:15, 17, 19, 21; 37:12, 16, 17, 21, 25, 29, 30, 32, 39; 52:6; 55:22; 58:10, 11; 64:10; 68:3; 69:28; 75:10; 92:12; 94:21; 97:11, 12; 112:4, 6; 116:5; 118:15, 20; 119:137; 125:3; 129:4; 140:13; 141:5; 142:7; 145:17; 146:8; Pr 1:11; 2:16; 3:9, 32, 33; 4:18, 25; 6:17; 9:9; 10:3, 6, 7, 11, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 28, 30, 31, 32; 11:1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 18, 19, 23, 28, 31; 12:3, 5, 7, 10, 13, 17, 21, 25, 26; 13:5, 9, 11, 21, 22, 23, 25; 14:9, 19, 32; 15:6, 28, 29; 16:7, 11, 13, 33; 17:4, 7, 15, 26; 18:5, 10, 17; 19:22; 20:8; 21:2, 3, 7, 12, 15, 18, 26; 23:24, 31; 24:15, 16, 24; 25:26; 28:1, 12, 21, 28; 29:2, 4, 6, 7, 16, 26, 27; 30:12; Eccl. 3:16, 17; 7:15, 16, 20; 8:14; 9:1, 2; Is 3:10; 5:23; 29:21; 32:1; 41:10; 45:21; 47:3; 51:1; 53:11; 54:17; 57:1; 58:2; 59:4; 60:21; 61:8; 64:5; Je 11:20; 12:1; 20:12; 23:5; 31:23; 42:5; Lam 1:18; 4:13; Ezek 3:20, 21; 13:22; 18:5, 8, 9, 11, 20, 24, 26; 23:45; 33:12, 13, 18; 45:10; Da 9:14; 12:3; Ho 14:9; Joel 3:19; Amos 2:6; 5:12; Jon 1:14; Hab. 1:4, 13; 2:4; Zeph. 3:5; Zech. 7:9; 9:9; Mal. 3:18). Here are a few representative uses of dikaios from the Septuagint, describing the character of God, the coming Messiah and godly men ... Genesis 6:9 These are the records of the generations of Noah. Noah was a righteous (Lxx = dikaios) man, blameless in his time; Noah walked with God. (Note that righteous conduct {walk} is associated with the one who is truly righteous). Genesis 7:1 Then the LORD said to Noah, "Enter the ark, you and all your household; for you alone I have seen to be righteous (Lxx = dikaios) before Me in this time. Genesis 18:23 And Abraham came near and said, "Wilt Thou indeed sweep away the righteous (Lxx = dikaios) with the wicked? Exodus 9:27 Then Pharaoh sent for Moses and Aaron, and said to them, "I have sinned this time; the LORD is the righteous (Lxx = dikaios) one, and I and my people are the wicked ones. Deuteronomy 32:4 The Rock! His work is perfect, for all His ways are just. A God of faithfulness and without injustice, righteous (Lxx = dikaios) and upright is He. Job 1:1 There was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job, and that man was blameless, upright (Lxx = dikaios), fearing God, and turning away from evil. (Note that righteous conduct {turning away from evil} is associated with the one who is truly righteous). Psalm 1:5 Therefore the wicked will not stand in the judgment, Nor sinners in the assembly of the righteous (Lxx = dikaios). Proverbs 10:3 The LORD will not allow the righteous (Lxx = dikaios) to hunger, But He will thrust aside the craving of the wicked. Ecclesiastes 7:20 Indeed, there is not a righteous (Lxx = dikaios) man on earth who continually does good and who never sins. Habakkuk 2:4 "Behold, as for the proud one, His soul is not right within him; But the righteous (Lxx = dikaios) will live by his faith. (Quoted in Ro 1:17; Gal 3:11; Heb 10:38 ) Zechariah 9:9 Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout in triumph, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your King (Messiah) is coming to you; He is just (Lxx = dikaios) and endowed with salvation, humble, and mounted on a donkey, Even on a colt, the foal of a donkey. (Quoted in Mt 21:5) The meaning of the root word dike is based on the assumption that men expect a certain standard of behavior and if this is not attained judgment may result. It follows that the basic meaning of the adjective dikaios describes that which is proper, right, fitting, fair, righteous, just (acting or being in conformity with what is morally upright or good). From a legal viewpoint dikaios refers to one who is law-abiding (doing all that law or justice requires), honest and good in behavior and from a religious viewpoint one who is rightly related to God. In simple terms this trait describes being in accordance with what God requires. The righteous man does what he ought. He is the person who conforms to the standard, will or character of God. For example, Luke describes Zacharias and Elizabeth (John the Baptist's parents) as both righteous (dikaios) in the sight of God, walking blamelessly in all the commandments and requirements of the Lord. (Lk 1:6, see Luke 2:25 "Simeon...was righteous") They were rightly related to God and because of that right relationship, they walked accordingly. Again we see righteous character is associated with righteous conduct. That's what Paul is calling for in those men who would lead God's church. The Greek writes used dikaios in the context of social rule to refer to that which is well-ordered or civilized. Thus one Greek writer describes a "dikaios" citizen - a "good citizen" or a "civilized (dikaios) way of life." Dikaios pertains to to being in accordance with high standards of rectitude, and so describes one who is upright or fair. In the Greco-Roman a dikaios individual was one who upheld the customs and norms of behavior, including especially public service, and in so doing, created the environment that made for a well-ordered, civilized society. One can readily see how apropos dikaios would be for the overseer. John gives us a Scriptural "definition" of dikaios writing Little children, let no one deceive you; the one who practices (present tense = habitually, as a lifestyle) righteousness is righteous (dikaios), just as He is righteous (dikaios). (1Jn 3:7) The one who habitually (not perfectly) does what is right is righteous (dikaios). A righteous character expresses itself in righteous conduct. If a man knows God, he will obey God. A man cannot claim genuine salvation if he is habitually living in sin. On the other hand, a man can only practice genuine righteousness because he possesses the nature of the One Who is righteous. Notice that the practice of righteousness is not what makes the individual “righteous” (dikaios), but reveals the inner nature of the one who is practicing righteousness. One practices righteousness because of his righteous character. You will know them by their fruits (Mt 7:16-note). The individual’s conduct is certain evidence of his nature. The one who practices righteousness does so because he has been granted the righteousness of God. And ultimately the overseer who is "just" or "righteous" is a man who reflects the just and fair character of God Himself. Vine comments that dikaios was first used of persons observant of dikē, custom, rule, right, especially in the fulfillment of duties towards gods and men, and of things that were in accordance with right. The English word “righteous” was formerly spelt ‘rightwise’, i.e., (in a) straight way. In the N.T. it denotes righteous, a state of being right, or right conduct, judged whether by the Divine standard, or according to human standards, of what is right. Said of God, it designates the perfect agreement between His nature and His acts (in which He is the standard for all men). (Vine, W E: Vine's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words. 1996. Nelson) Matthew in the first NT use of dikaios gives us a practical illustration of the meaning of this adjective in his description of Mary's husband, Joseph , recording that he was a righteous (dikaios) man and not wanting to disgrace her, desired to put her away secretly. (Mt 1:19) So here we note that being "righteous" is associated doing "right" -- right conduct. Phillips translates dikaios as "fair minded" which reflects one's commitment to and understanding of that which is just and equitable, at quality which is crucial to the credibility of the leader. Jesus used dikaios to describe His Father as O righteous [dikaios] Father” (Jn 17:25) By analogy then the overseer who is just, upright and fair, is a man who reflects the character of God the Father. Barclay adds that The Greeks defined the just (dikaios) man as he who gives both to men and to the gods what is due to them. The Christian office-bearer must be such that he gives to man the respect and to God the reverence, which are their due. (Barclay, W: The Daily Study Bible Series, Rev. ed. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press) MacArthur writes that since dikaios could refer to general righteousness, which would make it seem out of place in this list of specifics, it may be best to see it as meaning “fairness,” a commitment to and understanding of that which is just and equitable. That quality is crucial to the credibility of a leader. (MacArthur. Titus: Moody Press) The overseer who is not just, fair minded and upright toward men in all of his dealings can do little good and potentially can accomplish great harm to the body of Christ. The overseer's conduct must conform to the standard of right (dike). He is a man of integrity who sticks by his word and practices what he preaches. DEVOUT: hosion: moral (GWT) holy (NIV) pious (DNT) saintly (Weymouth) a devout man and religiously correct (Amp) Holy in his heart (Clarke) unstained (Wiersbe) pure, unpolluted, free from the stain of sin (Hiebert) "Copy and paste the address below into your web browser in order to go to the original page which will allow you to access live links related to the material on this page - these links include Scriptures (which can be read in context), Scripture pop-ups on mouse over, and a variety of related resources such as Bible dictionary articles, commentaries, sermon notes and theological journal articles related to the topic under discussion."

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