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Solemnly charge (1263) (diamarturomai from diá = intensifies meaning conveying idea of "thoroughly" + martúromai = witness, bear witness) means to bear witness, testify earnestly or repeatedly, to charge as it if before witnesses (here God and Christ Jesus), to exhort earnestly and with authority in matters of extraordinary importance (here the integrity of the message proclaimed). It carries the idea of giving a forceful order or directive. Diamarturomai -15x in the NT - Translated in KJV as - charge, 3; testify, 11; witness, 1. In the is is translated - solemnly charge, 3; solemnly testified, 2; solemnly testifies, 1; solemnly testifying, 3; solemnly to testify, 1; solemnly warned, 1; solemnly witnessed, 1; testified, 1; testify solemnly, 1; warn, 1. In the NAS = Usage: solemnly to testify(1), solemnly charge(3), solemnly testified(2), solemnly testifies(1), solemnly testifying(3), solemnly warned(1), solemnly witnessed(1), testified(1), testify solemnly(1), warn(1). Diamarturomai - here are the NT uses Luke 16:28 for I have five brothers-- that he may warn them, lest they also come to this place of torment.' Acts 2:40 And with many other words he solemnly testified and kept on exhorting them, saying, "Be saved from this perverse generation!" Acts 8:25 And so, when they had solemnly testified and spoken the word of the Lord, they started back to Jerusalem, and were preaching the gospel to many villages of the Samaritans. Acts 10:42 "And He ordered us to preach to the people, and solemnly to testify that this is the One who has been appointed by God as Judge of the living and the dead. Acts 18:5 But when Silas and Timothy came down from Macedonia, Paul began devoting himself completely to the word, solemnly testifying to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ. Acts 20:21 solemnly testifying to both Jews and Greeks of repentance toward God and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ...23 except that the Holy Spirit solemnly testifies to me in every city, saying that bonds and afflictions await me. 24 "But I do not consider my life of any account as dear to myself, in order that I may finish my course, and the ministry which I received from the Lord Jesus, to testify solemnly of the gospel of the grace of God. Acts 23:11 But on the night immediately following, the Lord stood at his side and said, "Take courage; for as you have solemnly witnessed to My cause at Jerusalem, so you must witness at Rome also." Acts 28:23 And when they had set a day for him, they came to him at his lodging in large numbers; and he was explaining to them by solemnly testifying about the kingdom of God, and trying to persuade them concerning Jesus, from both the Law of Moses and from the Prophets, from morning until evening. 1Thessalonians 4:6 (note) and that no man transgress and defraud his brother in the matter because the Lord is the avenger in all these things, just as we also told you before and solemnly warned you. 1 Timothy 5:21 I solemnly charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus and of His chosen angels, to maintain these principles without bias, doing nothing in a spirit of partiality. 2 Timothy 2:14 (note) Remind them of these things, and solemnly charge them in the presence of God not to wrangle about words, which is useless, and leads to the ruin of the hearers. 2 Timothy 4:1 (note) I solemnly charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who is to judge the living and the dead, and by His appearing and His kingdom: Hebrews 2:6 (note) But one has testified somewhere, saying, "What is man, that Thou rememberest him? Or the son of man, that Thou art concerned about him? Diamarturomai - 25x in the Septuagint - Ex 18:20; 19:10, 21; 21:29; Deut. 4:26; 8:19; 30:19; 31:28; 32:46; 1 Sam. 8:9; 2Ki. 17:13, 15; 2Chr. 24:19; Neh. 9:26, 34; 13:21; Ps. 50:7; 81:8; Jer. 6:10; 32:10, 44; Ezek. 16:2; 20:4; Zech. 3:6; Mal. 2:14 Paul is laying a mandate upon Timothy that must be obeyed, as if Paul were the commanding general and Timothy his chief officer of battle operations. In using this verb Paul is seeking Timothy's undivided attention to the matter at hand. Paul had used diamarturomai two times prior to admonish Timothy I solemnly charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus and of His chosen angels, to maintain these principles without bias, doing nothing in a spirit of partiality (1Ti 5:21). Remind them of these things, and solemnly charge them in the presence of God not to wrangle about words, which is useless and leads to the ruin of the hearers. (2Ti 2:14-note).(cf 1Ti 6:13). The first NT use of diamarturomai is found in the teaching on Lazarus and the rich man who both end up in Hades (Sheol), except that the rich man is on the hot side and so he pleads with Abraham I beg you, Father (Abraham), that you send him (Lazarus) to my father's house-- for I have five brothers-- that he may warn (diamarturomai ) them, lest they also come to this place of torment. (Lk 16:27, 28) What a picture diamarturomai presents of the serious nature of Paul's charge to Timothy. One of most concentrated uses of diamarturomai in Scripture is found in Paul's admonition laden farewell speech to the Ephesian elders where Paul reminds them that he has been solemnly testifying to both Jews and Greeks of repentance toward God and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ... (Acts 20:21) Paul also related that "the Holy Spirit solemnly testifies to me in every city, saying that bonds and afflictions await me...I do not consider my life of any account as dear to myself, in order that I may finish my course, (cf 2Ti 4:7-note) and the ministry which I received from the Lord Jesus (cf 2Ti 4:5-note), to testify solemnly of the gospel of the grace of God. (Acts 20:21, 23, 24) It therefore behooves all saints to seriously consider the accounting that we will shortly give to Jesus Christ of the stewardship entrusted to each of us. Paul elaborates on this truth in (1Cor 4:5) "Therefore do not go on passing judgment before the time, but wait until the Lord comes who will both bring to light the things hidden in the darkness and disclose the motives of men's hearts; and then each man's praise will come to him from God." In all your Christian work always check your motives (cf Ps 139:23, Ps 90:12) As an aside, any good Jew familiar with the Septuagint (as Timothy must have been) would recognize Paul's verb diamarturomai (in the Lxx or Septuagint, the Greek of the Hebrew OT) from the solemn warning by Moses to Israel: I call heaven and earth to witness against (diamarturomai) you today, that I have set before you life and death, the blessing and the curse. So choose life in order that you may live, you and your descendants. (Dt 30:19) The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge notes that this was A most solemn method of adjuration, in use among all the nations in the world; God and man being called upon to bear testimony to the truth of what was spoken, that if there was any flaw or insincerity it might be detected, and if any crime, it might not go unpunished. In 2 Timothy 4:1 God and the Son of Man are called upon to bear witness! The IVP Bible background commentary adds that An oath sworn by a deity or deities was considered especially binding and dangerous to break; in the same way, a charge witnessed by a deity or deities was sacred and inviolable. A broken oath would be avenged by the god whose name was violated; for Jewish people and Christians, the ultimate judgment was in the coming day of the Lord. Considering this background (which Timothy was surely cognizant of), we can rest assured that Timothy's ears, heart and mind were fully focused on the commands that followed. Do I have a similar sense of reverential awe of God and the Judge Who is standing right at the door (Jas 5:9), regarding my stewardship and accountability for the treasure entrusted to me? (cf 2Ti 13, 14-note) A W Pink comments that this... pressing injunction was enforced by the solemn consideration brought before him at the beginning of the chapter: the living and the dead should be judged at the appearing of his Master. But how could that judgment be a powerful persuasive unto fidelity and diligence unless his ministry was to be thoroughly reviewed in that Day? Wherein lay its solemnity unless he would have to give a full account of his stewardship? (from An exposition of the Sermon on the Mount) The solemnity of this charge should encourage us to do our work carefully and faithfully and also deliver us from the fear of man (Pr 29:25) for, in the final analysis, Christ Jesus is the only Judge that matters. Finally, the realization that God will one day judge our works (1Cor 3:13) should motivate and encourage us to keep going even when we face (out of season) difficulties (Gal 6:9-note, 1Cor 15:58-note, He 12:3, 4-note). We are serving Him, not ourselves. Lord please give us eternal vision like Paul and a whole heart like David, that we might appreciate the solemnity of each moment of life and of each choice (cp Da 1:8-note) to obey the Spirit or the flesh. Guide us so that this is not done out of legalism or by our might or our power but by Thy grace and Thy Spirit, for the sake of Your Kingdom and the renown of Your Son, Christ Jesus. Amen. William Arp writes about The Seriousness of the Command observing that... Paul begins his exhortation to Timothy by “charging” him to preach the Word. The word for “charge” shows the seriousness of Paul’s exhortation. It describes an emphatic declaration or affirmation. It reinforces a binding obligation. Before Paul gives Timothy his responsibility, he emphasizes the seriousness of his charge. Charging him before God and Jesus Christ seems to indicate that Timothy is accountable to them as he carries out this responsibility. They will see all that he does. He is responsible to them. He also writes that Jesus Christ will judge Timothy’s ministry. He will evaluate his ministry in these difficult times. This shows the solemnity of Timothy’s responsibility. Both the words used and the witnesses mentioned point out the importance of Paul’s charge to Timothy. (The Priority of Preaching in Problem Times -- By William E. Arp - Journal of Ministry and Theology - Spring, 1997) IN THE PRESENCE OF GOD AND OF CHRIST JESUS: enopion tou theou kai Christou Iesou: In the presence of God - This picture needs no explanation, but does call for us to stop and ponder the awe and holiness and majesty of being in the presence of God when we step up to the pulpit to proclaim the Word of Truth. May this picture never leave the pastor's mind and heart and may the Spirit use this truth to motivate a careful, reverential handling of God's Holy Word! Amen. Presence of God (9x in 8v in NAS) - Ps 68:8-note Eccl 5:2 Lk 1:19 1Ti 5:21 1Ti 6:13 2Ti 2:14-note 2Ti 4:1-note Heb 9:24-note In the presence of God and of Christ Jesus - Would it be that this would be our watch word. our lodestone or our warp and our woof. Coram Deo (in the presence of God) living! Ge 6:8 But Noah found favor in the eyes of the LORD. Ge 16:13 Then she called the name of the LORD who spoke to her, "Thou art a God who sees"; for she said, "Have I even remained alive here after seeing Him?" (See study El Roi: God Who Sees) Deut 11:11 "But the land into which you are about to cross to possess it, a land of hills and valleys, drinks water from the rain of heaven, 12 a land for which the LORD your God cares; the eyes of the LORD your God are always on it, from the beginning even to the end of the year. Ps 33:18 Behold, the eye of the LORD is on those who fear Him, on those who hope for His lovingkindness, Spurgeon: For this is a greater wonder than hosts and horses, a surer confidence than chariots or shields. The eye of the Lord is upon them that fear him. That eye of peculiar care is their glory and defence. None can take them at unawares, for the celestial watcher foresees the designs of their enemies, and provides against them. They who fear God need not fear anything else; let them fix their eye of faith on him, and his eye of love will always rest upon them. Upon them that hope in his mercy. This one would think to be a small evidence of grace, and yet it is a valid one. Humble hope shall have its share as well as courageous faith. Say, my soul, is not this an encouragement to thee? Dost thou not hope in the mercy of God in Christ Jesus? Then the Father's eye is as much upon thee as upon the elder born of the family. These gentle words, like soft bread, are meant for babes in grace, who need infant's food. Ps 34:15 The eyes of the LORD are toward the righteous, And His ears are open to their cry. Spurgeon: The eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous. He observes them with approval and tender consideration; they are so dear to him that he cannot take his eyes off them; he watches each one of them as carefully and intently as if there were only that one creature in the universe. His ears are open unto their cry. His eyes and ears are thus both turned by the Lord towards his saints; his whole mind is occupied about them: if slighted by all others they are not neglected by him. Their cry he hears at once, even as a mother is sure to hear her sick babe; the cry may be broken, plaintive, unhappy, feeble, unbelieving, yet the Father's quick ear catches each note of lament or appeal, and he is not slow to answer his children's voice. Ps 113:5 Who is like the LORD our God, Who is enthroned on high, 6 Who humbles Himself to behold the things that are in heaven and in the earth? Ps 139:2 Thou dost know when I sit down and when I rise up; Thou dost understand my thought from afar. 3 Thou dost scrutinize my path and my lying down, And art intimately acquainted with all my ways. Job 34:21 "For His eyes are upon the ways of a man, And He sees all his steps. Job 31:4 "Does He not see my ways, And number all my steps? Pr 5:21 For the ways of a man are before the eyes of the LORD, And He watches all his paths. Pr 15:3 The eyes of the LORD are in every place, Watching the evil and the good. Jer 16:17 "For My eyes are on all their (Israel's) ways; they are not hidden from My face, nor is their iniquity concealed from My eyes. Jer 23:24 "Can a man hide himself in hiding places, So I do not see him?" declares the LORD. "Do I not fill the heavens and the earth?" declares the LORD. Zech 4:10 "For who has despised the day of small things? But these seven will be glad when they see the plumb line in the hand of Zerubbabel-- these are the eyes of the LORD which range to and fro throughout the earth." Heb 4:13 And there is no creature hidden from His sight, but all things are open and laid bare to the eyes of Him with whom we have to do. 1 Peter 3:12 "FOR THE EYES OF THE LORD ARE UPON THE RIGHTEOUS, AND HIS EARS ATTEND TO THEIR PRAYER, BUT THE FACE OF THE LORD IS AGAINST THOSE WHO DO EVIL." All service should be carried out with the realization that it is watched by God’s all-seeing eye. It would do us all good to occasionally reflect on the fact that one day we will face God and our works will be judged. "Copy and paste the address below into your web browser in order to go to the original page which will allow you to access live links related to the material on this page - these links include Scriptures (which can be read in context), Scripture pop-ups on mouse over, and a variety of related resources such as Bible dictionary articles, commentaries, sermon notes and theological journal articles related to the topic under discussion."

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