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Jude 1:13 wild waves of the sea, casting up their own shame like foam; wandering stars, for whom the black darkness has been reserved forever: kumata agria thalasses epaphrizonta (PAPNPN) tas heauton aischunas kumata agria thalasses epaphrizonta(PAPNPN) tas heauton aischunas Raging = Ps 65:7; 93:3,4; Isa 57:20; Jer 5:22,23 foaming = Php 3:19; 2Ti 3:13 wandering = Rev 8:10,11 to whom = 2Pe 2:17; Rev 14:10,11; 20:10; 21:8 Amplified - Wild waves of the sea, flinging up the foam of their own shame and disgrace; wandering stars, for whom the gloom of eternal darkness has been reserved forever. Barclay - They are wild sea waves, frothing out their own shameless deeds. They are wandering stars and the abyss of darkness has been prepared for them for ever. NET wild sea waves, spewing out the foam of their shame; wayward stars for whom the utter depths of eternal darkness have been reserved. WILD WAVES Wild waves of the sea - "Unsettled, turbulent, and arrogant spirits; boldly belching out their abominable opinions and detestable doctrines." (John Trapp) "unquiet, turbulent, restless, that cannot cease from sin." (Matthew Poole) See also Wind wave - Wikipedia, Kistemaker - Jude portrays both the fierce brute force of the waves and their instability and unpredictability as they roll toward shore (cp James 1:6-note). Wild (066)(agria from agros = field - only 3x in NT = Mt 3:4 Mk 1:6 Jude 1:13 ) means wild in the sense of untamed or not subject to restraint (of waves as in Jude 1:13) or wild in the sense of growing in nature (growing in the fields and woods - agros). Friberg on agria - literally, of plants and animals found in the open field or forest, wild (Mt 3.4); figuratively, of strong natural occurrences stormy, fierce; of sea waves raging, violent (Jude 1:13) Casting up their own shame like foam - "flinging up the foam of their own shame and disgrace" (Amplified) "waves casting up their own shameless deeds like (dirty) foam." (NET Note) They were "casting up their own shame, exposing it, as the sea casts up refuse on the beach." (Cambridge Greek Testament) See also Sea foam - Wikipedia Here is an OT description of wicked men like the sea... (Isa 57:20) But the wicked are like (simile) the tossing sea, for (term of explanation) it cannot be quiet, and its waters toss up refuse and mud. The IVP Bible Background Commentary has an interesting note - In Greek tradition, Aphrodite, goddess of desire, was produced from the sea foam at the castration of the Titan Uranos (alluding to the teacher's immorality); waves appear in the Dead Sea Scrolls as an image of casting up the filth of sin. Shame (aischune) in the plural is shames or disgraces. Aischune describes shame resulting from exposure of one’s weaknesses or sins. It is not a feeling one has but an experience which comes to someone. NET Note - It is uncertain whether shameful deeds or shameful words are in view. Either way, the picture has taken a decided turn: Though waterless clouds and fruitless trees may promise good things, but deliver nothing, wild sea-waves are portents of filth spewed forth from the belly of the sea. Schreiner - What they did is likened to the grimy foam that coats a beach, leaving a sticky residue of shame behind. Barclay - "They are like wild sea waves frothing out their own shameless deeds." The picture is this. After a storm, when the waves have been lashing the shore with their frothing spray and their spume, there is always left on the shore a fringe of seaweed and driftwood and all kinds of unsightly litter from the sea. That is always an unlovely scene....The deeds of the wicked men are like the useless and unsightly litter which the waves leave scattered on the beach after a storm....The picture vividly portrays the ugliness of the deeds of Jude's opponents. (Jude - Barclay's Daily Study Bible) Wiersbe - Jude compared the apostates to “raging waves of the sea” not because of their power, but because of their pride and arrogant speech. “Their mouth speaketh great swelling words” (Jude 1:16). Like the swelling of the sea, they make a lot of noise, but what do they produce? Have you ever walked along the beach the morning after a storm and seen the ugly refuse that has been deposited on the shore? Jude may have had Isaiah 57:20 in mind: “But the wicked are like the troubled sea, when it cannot rest, whose waters cast up mire and dirt.” All that the “great swelling words” of the apostates can produce is foam and flotsam! The true teachers of the Word bring up the treasures of the deep, but the false teachers produce only refuse. And what they boast about, they really ought to be ashamed of! (see Phil. 3:19) (Be Alert 2 Peter, 2 & 3 John, Jude- Beware of the Religious Impostors) Barnes - The waves are lashed into foam, and break and dash on the shore. They seem to produce nothing but foam, and to proclaim their own shame, that after all their wild roaring and agitation they should effect no more. So with these noisy and vaunting teachers. What they impart is as unsubstantial and valueless as the foam of the ocean waves, and the result is in fact a proclamation of their own shame. Men with so loud professions should produce much more. (Barnes' Notes) Constable - Waves cast up bits of filth and debris on the shore with their foam and flotsam (wreckage, refuse). Similarly the false teachers spread evidence of their uncontrolled immorality and impurity wherever they went (cf. Isaiah 57:20). (Jude - Expository Notes) WANDERING STARS IN BLACK DARKNESS Wandering stars = Compare 2Peter 2:17-note. Possibly referring to comets, which shine a while and then pass into darkness. "They belong not to the system: they stray at random and without law, and must at last be severed from the lights which rule while they are ruled" (Lumby). Wandering (4107)(planetes from planao = lead astray; gives us our English "planet") describes one who wanders about. Planetes was used "mostly of the planets, which appeared to ‘wander’ across the skies among the fixed stars.'' (BDAG) Barclay - The wicked men are like the wandering stars that are kept in the abyss of darkness for their disobedience. This is a picture directly taken from the Book of Enoch. In that book the stars and the angels are sometimes identified; and there is a picture of the fate of the stars who, disobedient to God, left their appointed orbit and were destroyed. In his journey through the, earth Enoch came to a place where he saw, "neither a heaven above nor a firmly founded earth, but a place chaotic and horrible." He goes on: "And there I saw seven stars of the heaven bound together in it, like great mountains and burning with fire. Then I said, 'For what sin are they bound, and on account of what have they been cast in hither?' Then said Uriel, one of the holy angels, who was with me and who was chief over them, 'Enoch, why dost thou ask and why art thou eager for the truth? These are the numbers of the stars of heaven which have transgressed the commandment of the Lord, and are bound here till ten thousand years, the time entailed by their sins, are consummated'" (Enoch 21:1-6). The fate of the wandering stars is typical of the fate of the man who disobeys God's commandments and, as it were, takes his own way. (Jude - Barclay's Daily Study Bible) Constable - Some "stars" move about in the sky differently from the other stars. We now recognize these as planets and distinguish them from stars. Similarly the false teachers behaved out of harmony with the other luminaries. The Greek word planetes, which transliterated means "planet," really means wanderer. Long ago stargazers observed that these wanderers across the sky were different from the fixed stars. Likewise the false teachers had gone off course and had led people astray. (Jude - Expository Notes) NET Note - The imagery of a star seems to fit the nautical theme that Jude is developing. Stars were of course the guides to sailors at night, just as teachers are responsible to lead the flock through a benighted world. But false teachers, as wayward stars, are not fixed and hence offer unreliable, even disastrous guidance. They are thus both the dangerous reefs on which the ships could be destroyed and the false guides, leading them into these rocks. There is a special irony that these lights will be snuffed out, reserved for the darkest depths of eternal darkness. BLACK DARKNESS For whom the black darkness has been reserved forever ("utter darkness of darkness for eternity") - Even without knowing the Greek meanings, this picture is frighteningly and forever bleak! Henry Morris - They are destined both for "everlasting fire" (Mt 25:41), in the ultimate Lake of Fire (Rev 20:15-note), yet also for "outer darkness" (Mt 25:30), "the mist of darkness...forever" (2Pe 2:17-note). How both can be true we do not know, nor do we need to know. Possibly the final hell is a dark nebula or a black hole, or perhaps the fires are merely symbolic of even worse realities. In any case, the eternal future of such false teachers is indescribably dismal. Great had been their opportunities; therefore great will be their judgment when they misuse them in such deadly ways. (Defender's Study Bible Notes) Lake of Fire - Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology Wiersbe - God has reserved chains of darkness for the rebellious angels (Jude 6), and He has reserved “the blackness of darkness forever” for apostate teachers. Beware of following a falling star! It will lead you into eternal blackness! (Be Alert 2 Peter, 2 & 3 John, Jude- Beware of the Religious Impostors) Blackness (2217) (zophos) describes the blackness of (i.e., the densest) darkness, gloom of the nether world in Homer (see below), groom (as shrouding like a cloud). Zophos describes darkness that ranges from partial to total and conveys a suggestion of foreboding and gloom and in here specifically referring to the thick darkness associated with the region of those who are lost, "a designation for the underworld." Zophos is used two times each by Peter and Jude--twice to describe the darkness in which fallen angels are now held (2Pe 2:4-note; Jude 6) and twice to describe the coming final judgment (2Pe 2:17-note; Jude 1:13). "the gloom of the world below, nether darkness." (Liddell-Scott) Homer uses zophos in a description of the underworld - "These halls are full / Of shadows hastening down to Erebus / Amid the gloom (hupo zophon)." (The) Darkness (4655)(skotos from skia = shadow thrown by an object) is literally that sphere in which light is absent. The phrase "the outer darkness" refers to the place of punishment or exclusion from God Who is light! Skotos can refer to literal darkness as occurred on the day of Jesus' crucifixion (Mt 27:45) or darkness as opposed to light in the creation (2Cor 4:6). Skotos is used as another name for the place of punishment, eternal misery and eternal separation from God (the meaning of skotos here in Jude and in 2Pe 2:17-note) . It is interesting to recall that when Jesus was made sin for us on the Cross, "It was now about the sixth hour, and darkness (skotos) fell over the whole land until the ninth hour, because the sun was obscured; and the veil of the temple was torn in two." (Lk 23:44-45; cf Mt 27:45 ; Mk 15:33) Darkness at the Cross surely in part indicates God's judgment on sin, but the torn veil symbolizes opening into the presence of God that we might not have to experience darkness forever. Darkness - Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology Guzik - The punishment of hell is forever because a mere man is paying for his own sins, offering an imperfect sacrifice which must be repeated over and over again for eternity. A perfect man can offer a single sacrifice; but an imperfect man must continually offer a sacrifice. Our obligations to God are infinite and can therefore only be satisfied in Jesus, an infinite person DARKNESS (TORREY) Created by God Psalm 104:20 ; Isaiah 45:7 Originally covered the earth Genesis 1:2 Separated from the light Genesis 1:4 Called night Genesis 1:5 Caused by the setting of the sun Genesis 15:17 ; John 6:17 Inexplicable nature of Job 38:19,20 Exhibits God's power and greatness Job 38:8,9 DEGREES OF, MENTIONED Great Genesis 15:12 That may be felt Exodus 10:21 Thick Deuteronomy 5:22 ; Joel 2:2 Gross Jeremiah 13:16 Outer or extreme Matthew 8:12 EFFECTS OF Keeps us from seeing objects Exodus 10:23 Causes us to go astray John 12:35 ; 1John 2:11 Causes us to stumble Isaiah 59:10 Often put for night Psalm 91:6 Called the swaddling band of the sea Job 38:9 Cannot hide us from God Psalm 139:11,12 THE WICKED The children of 1Thes 5:5 Live in Psalm 107:10 Walk in Psalm 82:5 Perpetuate their designs in Job 24:16 Are full of Matthew 6:23 MIRACULOUS On mount Sinai Exodus 19:16 ; Hebrews 12:18 Over the land of Egypt Exodus 10:21,22 At the death of Christ Matthew 27:45 Before the destruction of Jerusalem Matthew 24:29 ILLUSTRATIVE OF Greatness and unsearchableness of God Ex 20:21 ; 2Sa 22:10,12 ; 1Ki 8:12 ; Ps 97:2 Abstruse and deep subjects Job 28:3 Secrecy Isaiah 45:19 ; Matthew 10:27 Ignorance and error Job 37:19 ; Isaiah 60:2 ; John 1:5; 3:19; 12:35; Acts 26:18 Anything hateful Job 3:4-9 A course of sin Proverbs 2:13 ; Ephesians 5:11 Heavy afflictions Job 23:17 ; Psalm 112:4 ; Ecclesiastes 5:17 ; Isaiah 5:30; 8:22; 59:9 The power of Satan Ephesians 6:12 ; Colossians 1:13 The grave 1 Samuel 2:9 ; Job 10:21,22 The punishment of devils and wicked men 13" class="scriptRef">Matthew 22:13 ; 2Peter 2:4,17; Jude 1:6,13 Casting Off The Works Of Darkness Romans 13:11-12 . The LORD Creating Darkness Isaiah 45:7 . There Being No Darkness In GOD 1John 1:5 . Those That Put Darkness For Light, And Light For Darkness Isaiah 5:20 . Those That Walk In Darkness John 11:9-10, 12:35-36 ; Ep 4:17-18 ; 1Jn 1:5-6; 2:11 . What Came Out Of Darkness Genesis 1:2-3 ; 2Corinthians 4:6 . What Happens In The Night 1Thessalonians 5:7 . What Is As Darkness Proverbs 4:19 . When Your Body Is Full Of Darkness Luke 11:34-35 . Who Is In Darkness Job 24:13-16 ; Proverbs 2:11-15 ; Ecclesiastes 2:14 ; 1 John 2:9-11 . Who Is Not In Darkness 1Thessalonians 5:4-5 .

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